rom Colombia to Sri Lanka and India to Myanmar, the world’s finest coloured gemstones have been brought together for Sotheby’s spring auctions at the end of April in Hong Kong. The vibrant colours of gemstones such as rubies, sapphires and emeralds, sometimes referred to as “The Big Three,” have entranced collectors with their beauty through the ages. Often considered together in a similar category of cardinal gems, these stones are emblematic of royalty, nobility, and celebrity, each expressing power and romance in different ways. Read ahead to discover the natural beauty of these rare and lively jewels.
In ancient times rubies were worn by warriors for protection and by rulers to signify their majesty and wealth. Today it remains one of the most sought-after coloured gemstones at a time when colour dominates the world of jewels and rarity drives the market. Some of the world’s most prized rubies have been collected by the nobility and celebrities alike.
Believed to hold the power of life, rubies owe its red colour to the presence of the element chromium. A variety of the mineral corundum, the ruby’s chemical properties are identical to sapphires except in color. The most highly prized is referred to as “pigeon’s blood,” describing a particular quality of vivid bright red and a term originating in Myanmar, which also happens to be the source of some of the finest rubies in the world from as far back as 600 AD. In 2015, Sotheby’s achieved a world record price for the Sunrise Ruby, a cushion-shaped Burmese ruby weighing 25.59 carats, mounted by Cartier.
Less than 10% of all gem-quality rubies are unheated, making them rare and impressive. Darker rubies are more common and are often heated to enhance their shade, but unheated rubies are naturally intense and vibrant. In particular, rubies from Burma react to ultraviolet light which creates a fire and natural glow in the stone in sunlight. This is one of the reasons Burmese rubies are so highly valued.
Because of its hardness on the Mohs scale, rubies are the perfect gemstone to be cut into different shapes and sizes and then crafted into a piece of jewelry. Some rubies have inclusions which can cause the phenomenon of asterism, and these unheated rubies are usually cut en cabochon to show a “star.” Even less often they can be chatoyant, displaying a “cat’s eye” effect.
“No other gem exudes a fiery passion as ruby. There is something to the radiance and beauty of a fine ruby that no other gem approaches."
Poetically named ‘The Carmine Rose’, this stunning 8.08 carat Burmese ruby with no indications of alterations made to its beauty is a wonder of nature. Carmine as a colour describes one of the deepest of reds, which suits this astonishing ruby perfectly. Originating from the valley of Mogok known for exceptional quality of rubies, The Carmine Rose captivates the beholder with its strong red colour enhanced by its red fluorescence, a classic trait of the finest Burmese rubies.
The AGL JewelFolio for the Carmine Rose says, 'This highly refined gem possesses all of the quintessential characteristics that identify a ruby that has been unearthed from the most historically important and influential ruby source in the Shan State of Burma. Top-quality Burmese rubies such as this uphold and reaffirm the esteemed status of a Burmese ruby and its reputation as the premier ruby source in the world. In consideration of its rarity, this gem has been named The Carmine Rose.'
Sapphire is the regal sister of the ruby. Typically sapphire is blue, but it does occur in a rainbow of colours such as pink, green, yellow, purple and orange. Rich in colour, superb in quality and perfect alone or paired with virtually any gem, sapphires have universal appeal. Arguably the most famous such stone may be Kate Middleton's and Princess Diana's engagement ring. Sotheby’s has sold some of the world’s most jaw-dropping sapphires, including highly coveted “royal blue” rarities as well as pinkish-orange varieties known as padparadscha sapphires.
Sapphires were first discovered in Kashmir in the late 19th century, while Myanmar has been producing sapphires for over 1,000 years. Myanmar has several important locations that produce sapphires, the most famous being the Mogok Stone Tract which has a rich history of production dating back several hundred years. Current mining is severely limited, making sapphires from Myanmar rare. Kashmir sapphires have acquired an almost legendary status, due to both their unique colour and texture, and their extreme rarity. In the early 1880s sapphires were discovered in a remote valley in the Kashmir region of India, and the mine operated for just five years between 1882 and 1887, resulting from the depletion of the supply. This limited production has resulted in only a small fraction of the world’s total sapphire supply originating from Kashmir. But Sri Lanka has perhaps the longest history of sapphires. Once known as Ratna-Dweepa or “Gem Island,” Sri Lanka was recorded to have these precious stones as far back as the 2nd century and trading history dates
But what exactly is it that makes blue sapphires from Kashmir, Myanmar and Sri Lanka superior to sapphires from any other location? Visually, their color saturation possesses the highest concentration of blue color possible, setting them apart from any other blue gem in the world. They are quite simply, are the highest quality of sapphire one can find on earth.
Other types of rare sapphires of pinkish-orange hue may be called padparadscha, from the Sanskrit word that refers to the colour of the sacred lotus blossom. Padparadscha sapphires are majestic and the rarest of the sapphire group.
This beautiful sapphire from Burma weighs 26.08 carats, with a deeply saturated blue colour and a very fine purity. Known as the 'royal blue' colour in the trade, this is a combination of well-balanced trace elements in the gemstone, typical of the finest sapphires of Mogok. The colour of the sapphire is further enhanced by its cutting style, which is well balanced in proportion to reflect its vivid hues. A natural sapphire from Burma of this size and quality is certainly rare, and is stated as a 'royal blue' colour from both Gubelin and SSEF.
Green is a colour that brims with promise. It heralds the coming of spring, regeneration and new growth. “The most abundant hue in nature, the human eye sees more green than any other color in the spectrum,” according to Leatrice Eiseman of the Pantone Colour Institute. The colour, she says, “brings a sense of clarity, renewal and rejuvenation, which is so important in today's complex world.”
Once Cleopatra’s alleged favourite gemstone, the glamourous emerald continues to impress everyone from royals to the red carpet’s best dressed. Beloved for their rich, exotic colour, emeralds are a bluish-green variety of the mineral beryl. When chromium, vanadium and iron are present in beryl, emeralds form, and the varying presence of these three elements results in a range of colours. If the stone’s hue is too yellow or blue, it is not an emerald but rather a variety of beryl, which makes highly transparent and vividly saturated green emeralds extremely valuable and coveted.
Colombia is today's largest supplier of emeralds, responsible for more than 60% of world production. Other sources include Brazil, Zambia and Zimbabwe, while historically emeralds were also mined in Egypt and India.
Emeralds typically have inclusions of fissures that may be visible to the unaided eye. Stones without eye-visible inclusions are thus rare and highly valuable. Due to the included nature of emeralds, many are treated with oil or polymers to improve their clarity. Such treatment might decrease value, and untreated “no oil” emeralds would be deemed relatively of higher value, as it means that the gemstones naturally have no surface fractures.
Van Cleef & Arpels emerald and diamond pendent necklace features a step-cut emerald weighing 83.21 carats, surrounded by pear- and marquise-shaped diamonds. Accompanied by a Gübelin report, the emerald is of Colombian origin, with indications of minor clarity enhancement with a traditional filling material (oil-type).
Emeralds also feature in a tiara, ear clips, and brooch set, designed as a series of graduated scrolls highlighted with three spray motifs set with emerald drops, embellished with variously-shaped diamonds.