View full screen - View 1 of Lot 7. Cool Breeze.
7

Stanley Whitney

Cool Breeze

Estimate:

80,000 to - 120,000 USD

Stanley Whitney

Stanley Whitney

Cool Breeze

Cool Breeze

Estimate:

80,000 to - 120,000 USD

Lot sold:

252,000

USD

Stanley Whitney

b. 1946

Cool Breeze


signed, titled and dated Aug. 2006 on the reverse

oil on canvas

40¼ by 40¼ in.  (102.2 by 102.2 cm.)

This work is in very good condition overall. There are tonal and textural variations to the surface, including scattered areas of stray media, inherent to the artist's chosen media and working method. There is some very minor evidence of handling wear to the extreme turning edges and corners, visible upon close inspection. Under ultraviolet light, there is no evidence of restoration. Unframed.


The lot is sold in the condition it is in at the time of sale. The condition report is provided to assist you with assessing the condition of the lot and is for guidance only. Any reference to condition in the condition report for the lot does not amount to a full description of condition. The images of the lot form part of the condition report for the lot. Certain images of the lot provided online may not accurately reflect the actual condition of the lot. In particular, the online images may represent colors and shades which are different to the lot's actual color and shades. The condition report for the lot may make reference to particular imperfections of the lot but you should note that the lot may have other faults not expressly referred to in the condition report for the lot or shown in the online images of the lot. The condition report may not refer to all faults, restoration, alteration or adaptation. The condition report is a statement of opinion only. For that reason, the condition report is not an alternative to taking your own professional advice regarding the condition of the lot. NOTWITHSTANDING THIS ONLINE CONDITION REPORT OR ANY DISCUSSIONS CONCERNING A LOT, ALL LOTS ARE OFFERED AND SOLD "AS IS" IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS OF SALE/BUSINESS APPLICABLE TO THE RESPECTIVE SALE.

Esso Gallery, New York

Private Collection

Executed in 2006, Cool Breeze belongs to Stanley Whitney’s highly celebrated series of color grid paintings, which simultaneously embrace the freedom of color and the order of the grid. This series, which has been widely exhibited, including at Documenta 14 in Kassel and Athens (2017), represents the culmination of Whitney’s life-long exploration of color. Since the 1990s, Whitney has committed himself to exploring this same compositional motif; however, this decision has in no way limited Whitney as an artist. On the contrary, it has unlocked a limitless realm of possibilities, an infinite world of color.


The grid as an organizational structure tends to eliminate individual choice insofar as it regiments and confines. However, there is no such rigidity in Whitney’s compositions. In fact, a grid of color seems to be an oxymoron. How can a grid be both free and ordered, colorful and lifeless? Whitney speaks of this paradox:


I never think about the structure as a grid—though it is a grid, really. I’m a real New York City painter, if you know what I mean. My paintings are just the way New York is. I want that kind of simplicity, which is also the madness of New York, because of the color. So you have this contradiction, in a sense. There’s the grid, which should be very orderly, and then you put the color, and it throws the whole thing off.[1]


The structure of Whitney’s compositions and his reference to New York recall Piet Mondrian’s work, specifically Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942-43). In this painting, Mondrian’s grid captures the energy and rhythm of modern life in New York, just like Whitney’s paintings. Although he acknowledges that his compositions are grids of a kind, it is important to consider that Whitney never thinks of his paintings in this way. A grid implies compartmentalization, the isolation of its elements; however, in Whitney’s paintings, the blocks of color bleed into each other ­— they jostle against each other like pedestrians on a crowded sidewalk. We might then be better off thinking of Whitney’s compositions not as grids, but perhaps as crossroads of color. In his work, there is a kind of crossing over, an exchange, a call and response that takes place between the colorful blocks.


Mondrian’s reference to boogie-woogie music in Broadway Boogie Woogie also parallels Whitney’s own engagement with jazz. Both artists embrace the musicality of color and the rhythm of composition. Whitney, a life-long lover of jazz, often titles his paintings after his favorite jazz tracks or musicians. The current work’s title, Cool Breeze, is no exception, since it references Dizzy Gillespie’s song of the same name. Whitney says that “Painting, for me, is like music. It really is like call and response. A color calls another color.”[2] For Whitney, who describes his approach to color as intuitive, painting becomes a kind of musical improvisation in the style of Dizzy Gillespie. The varied application of paint throughout a painting like Cool Breeze testifies to this improvisational spirit as the paint becomes Whitney’s instrument. Just like when listening to Gillespie’s music, when looking at Whitney’s Cool Breeze, the viewer is led through a dynamic composition in color, that is full of surprises and visual interest. The interplay between the vertically stacked blocks and the intersecting horizontals establishes a spirited tempo that keeps us on our toes as viewers. Whitney describes, “I wanted something as open as Pollock but as structured as Mondrian.”[3] In this way, the grid comes to life through Whitney’s improvisation. His grids are never familiar or repetitive; each painting is a completely new riff on an old theme.


Beyond music, Whitney also draws inspiration from the architecture of Italy and Egypt, which he experienced for the first time in the ‘90s when living in Italy. In fact, Whitney painted Cool Breeze in Italy, where he and his wife (fellow painter Marina Adams) keep a studio near Parma. Whitney describes his pivotal experience with Egyptian architecture:


I looked at the pyramids and found the last missing piece of my puzzle—it was density … I bet I can just stick these colors right next to each other instead of having them on a field. I didn’t know at that point that the space was in the color. I kept thinking the space was around, and the color was all in the space. But when I put the colors directly next to each other, I realized that I don’t lose the air.”[4]


Although architecture, particularly structures like the pyramids, tends to convey an unbelievable sense of weight, when Whitney incorporates architecture into his practice, his stacks remain weightless. Despite the ‘density’ of the blocks in Cool Breeze, which seem to be compressing almost like an accordion, this compression does not at all suggest gravity or the weight of these blocks. These pillars of color transcend their own weight. Whitney’s brilliant realization was that “the space was in the color” and not the other way around. Instead of having weight in space, color is immaterial as space itself. For Whitney, color, as the fabric of the universe, is a kind of infinity. There is a certain ‘airiness’ in Whitney’s compositions, which he seems to allude to in the current work’s title, Cool Breeze. In this way, the ‘compression’ of the stacks in Cool Breeze is not at all suffocating. Instead, we sense that the painting, as it pulsates, is compressing and expanding as if the color itself were breathing.


[1] Stanley Whitney, quoted in Alteronce Gumby, “Oral History Project: Stanley Whitney by Alteronce Gumby,” BOMB, April 21, 2015.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.