Although they consider themselves as one people, the discrete cultural practices in eastern and western Pende groups are the cause of their distinction in ethnographic study and artistic analysis. Eastern Pende groups, who live on the banks of the Kasai River, engage their masks in a more secretive fashion than their western counterparts. Biebuyck contends that [the masks] 'come out intermittently in the evening or at night on specified occasions, such as investiture of a chief, construction of the house with the royal regalia, circumcision rites, displacement of a village, and healing. Their connections with chieftainship are strong.' (Biebuyck, The Art of Zaire, Vol. I: Southwestern Zaire, 1985, p. 244). In common with many other masks from this region, the present mask is painted with red, black, and white pigments, and has a raffia beard.