Victor Justice Evans (1865-1931), Washington, D.C.
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., bequest of the above, March 26, 1931, cat. no. 361,090, acc. no. 113,605
Bernard Brown, Milwaukee, acquired from the above via the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin, December 3, 1963
Arthur Cohen & Elaine Lustig Cohen, New York, acquired by the late 1960s
Carved out of dried cottonwood roots by initiated Hopi men, kachina
figures – called tithu
in the Hopi language – represent the different spirits that lie at the foundation of Hopi theology. These spirits, also called kachinas
, act as intermediaries between the supernatural and material worlds and possess the power to bring rain to the parched desert landscape and to protect the overall well-being of Hopi villages. From December to July of each year, the Hopi believed that kachina
spirits mingled among the living and held dance ceremonies during which men wearing colorful costumes embodied kachinas
. The figures were presented to girls and young women as instruments of protection as well as guides for proper behavior. Far from being treated as 'dolls' in the Western sense, kachina
figures were displayed in Hopi homes out of reverence for the spirits and as mnemonic tools.
Perhaps drawn to the figures' bewildered expressions or their connection to the spiritual realm, surrealist artists André Breton and Max Ernst were renowned collectors of kachina dolls. Breton displayed his collection on a wall in his Paris apartment while Ernst, together with Peggy Guggenheim, to whom he was married between 1941-1946, had a dog named Kachina.