The LOFTI satellites were one of the earliest orbiting spacecraft, which were intended to study the propagation of radio waves through and by the ionosphere. The experiment was also designed to determine whether low frequency radio signals penetrated water reliably enough to be used for communications with submerged submarines. LOFTI-1 was launched on a Thor-Able rocket in 1961, and its scheduled separation from the Transit-3B satellite (to which it was attached), failed. Despite its abbreviated orbit, a great deal of valuable data related to VLF and VHF transionospheric transmission was still obtained.
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