Most aquamanilia were produced in Germany, with important workshops based in Lower Saxony, Nuremberg, Braunschweig and Lübeck. However, a number of these vessels, like the present example, cannot be confidently attributed to those centres. Like all lion aquamanilia, the present piece shares certain features with the famous Braunschweig lion (Barnet and Dandridge, op. cit. p. 14), including the individually lobed locks of hair of the mane, and the stance with the hind legs stretching out below the body. Even closer comparison can be made with those lions produced in Lübeck and across the Schleswig-Holstein region during the fourteenth century. Ursula Mende (op. cit) convincingly attributes a group of lion aquamanilia and door-knockers to this region, where workshops operated within the circle of Johann Apengeter (before 1300-after 1351). The aquamanilia within this group are distinguished, most importantly, by the collar-like band around the head, which terminates in the large round ears. Further distinctions include the close-set almond-shaped eyes, the handle in the shape of a dragon, and the tail with several knobs. Prime examples of this group are the lion aquamanile in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin (inv. no. 17,105) and the Samson and the Lion in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (inv. no. 40.233; see Barnet and Dandridge, op. cit., no. 16 and Brandt, op. cit., no. 49).
The present Lion Aquamanile, sharing many of the features of the Lübeck group, is likely to have originated in the same region. Compare also to Falke and Meyer, op. cit., images 446-450. However, Falke and Meyer identify a group of five lions, cat. nos. 493-497, including the present Lion, as seemingly more provincial, and therefore possibly manufactured in Scandinavia (op. cit. p. 76-77). They base this distinction from the Northern German lions on a certain heaviness in the execution, the detailing on the collar and the legs, and the fact that these were all preserved in Scandinavian localities, including the National Museum in Copenhagen and the Brandt Collection in Oslo. Mende (op. cit., p. 99) states that due to Hanseatic trade around the Baltic Sea during the fourteenth century, the influence of the Apengeter workshop is likely to have spread to Scandinavian countries in the region, such as Denmark, but she considers it more likely that the finished aquamanilia, produced in Schleswig-Holstein, were then traded throughout the Baltic Sea region. Falke and Meyer acknowledge in their seminal work that firmly determining the origin of these items is very difficult. However, the present Aquamanile, of impressive stature and size, presents the rare opportunity to acquire a published aquamanile of exceptional quality.
U. Mende, Die Türzieher des Mittelalters, Denkmäler deutscher Kunst, Bronzegeräte des Mittelalters, vol. 2, Berlin, 1981. p. 90-98; O. ter Kuile, Koper & Brons, cat. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1986, no. 12, p. 16; P. Barnet and P. Dandridge, Lions, Dragons, & Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table, exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2006, pp. 3-17, no. 16; M. Brandt (ed.), Bild & Bestie, Hildesheimer Brozen des Stauferzeit, exh. cat. Dom-Museum Hildesheim, Hildesheim, 2008, cat. nos. 12, 38 and 49
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