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印象派的美麗新世界:知名家族收藏

卡米耶・畢沙羅
《埃拉尼的乾草堆與教堂鐘塔》
估價
Irrevocable Bids
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures that the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder or may receive a fixed fee in the event he or she is the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, the fixed fee (if applicable) for providing the irrevocable bid may be netted against the irrevocable bidder’s obligation to pay the full purchase price for the lot and the purchase price reported for the lot shall be net of such fixed fee. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. If the irrevocable bidder is advising anyone with respect to the lot, Sotheby’s requires the irrevocable bidder to disclose his or her financial interest in the lot. If an agent is advising you or bidding on your behalf with respect to a lot identified as being subject to an irrevocable bid, you should request that the agent disclose whether or not he or she has a financial interest in the lot.
Double Dagger
Indicates that the lot is being sold whilst subject to Temporary Importation, and that VAT is due at the reduced rate
Guaranteed Property
Guaranteed Property. The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. If every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
1,200,0001,800,000
拍品已售 1,455,000 英鎊 成交價 (含買家佣金)
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11

印象派的美麗新世界:知名家族收藏

卡米耶・畢沙羅
《埃拉尼的乾草堆與教堂鐘塔》
估價
Irrevocable Bids
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures that the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder or may receive a fixed fee in the event he or she is the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, the fixed fee (if applicable) for providing the irrevocable bid may be netted against the irrevocable bidder’s obligation to pay the full purchase price for the lot and the purchase price reported for the lot shall be net of such fixed fee. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. If the irrevocable bidder is advising anyone with respect to the lot, Sotheby’s requires the irrevocable bidder to disclose his or her financial interest in the lot. If an agent is advising you or bidding on your behalf with respect to a lot identified as being subject to an irrevocable bid, you should request that the agent disclose whether or not he or she has a financial interest in the lot.
Double Dagger
Indicates that the lot is being sold whilst subject to Temporary Importation, and that VAT is due at the reduced rate
Guaranteed Property
Guaranteed Property. The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. If every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
1,200,0001,800,000
拍品已售 1,455,000 英鎊 成交價 (含買家佣金)
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拍品詳情

印象派及現代藝術晚拍

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倫敦

卡米耶・畢沙羅
1831 - 1903年
《埃拉尼的乾草堆與教堂鐘塔》
款識:藝術家簽名C. Pissarro並紀年1884(左下)
油彩畫布
54 x 65 公分
21 1/4 x 25 5/8 英寸
1884年作
參閱狀況報告 參閱狀況報告

來源

杜杭・胡埃畫廊,巴黎(1884年12月購自藝術家本人)

馬塞爾・拜爾南畫廊,巴黎(1936年12月購自上述畫廊)

米勒畫廊,布宜諾斯艾利斯

私人收藏(1936年購自上述畫廊)

此後由家族傳承至現藏家

展覽

巴黎,杜杭・胡埃畫廊,「卡米耶・畢沙羅畫作」,1928年,品號44(題為《埃拉尼的乾草堆》)

巴黎,「法國藝術巨匠」,1936年,品號11

布宜諾斯艾利斯,阿根廷國家美術館,「阿根廷收藏中的法國印象派」,1962年,圖錄載圖


出版

路德維・羅多・畢沙羅及里奧奈羅・溫杜里,《卡米耶・畢沙羅:其藝-其畫》,巴黎,1939年,第I冊,品號647,圖錄頁172;第II冊,品號647,圖版133(題為《埃拉尼的乾草堆》)

華金・畢沙羅、克萊爾・杜杭・胡埃・斯諾耶特,《畢沙羅:畫評目錄》,巴黎,2005年,第III冊,品號778,頁515載彩圖

相關資料

本作繪於1884年,是一幅肌理豐富的優美畫作,描繪畢沙羅位於埃普特河畔的埃拉尼住所附近的風景。1884年春天,畫家舉家遷往埃拉尼,隨後一直安居至1903年離世。他非常享受小鎮的寧靜時光,於是在鄰鎮莫內的慷慨資助下,於1892年出手購入一幢房子。這幢房子一直保存至今,現在依然屹立在一條以畢沙羅命名的街道上。在一封1884年3月1日寫給兒子盧西恩的信裡,畢沙羅在字裡行間流露出對這座小鎮的熱愛:「沒錯,我們決定搬到埃普特河畔的埃拉尼。房子很好,也不太昂貴,價值一千法郎,連花園和農地,距離巴黎兩小時路程。儘管當天暴雨滂沱,我仍然覺得埃拉尼的鄉郊比康邊更美。現在春天來了,田野草色青綠,遠方景物的輪廓清秀嬌嫩。吉索爾春色明媚」(引述約翰·勒華,《卡米耶·畢沙羅:寫給兒子盧西恩的信》,紐約,1943年,頁58)。

在埃拉尼安享晚年的日子裡,畢沙羅不斷嘗試用畫筆記錄周圍的鄉村景致,並一遍又一遍地完善自己的作品。對他而言,埃拉尼是一闕優美的田園詩歌,能夠帶來源源不絕的靈感,驅使他從印象主義走向新印象主義,成為他在1880年代末期至1890年代早期的主要創作風格。畢沙羅認為,印象主義早在1883年就開到荼蘼,正是在這段時期,他受到秀拉的影響,開始接受新印象主義技法,秀拉更加聲稱畢沙羅是第一位轉投新印象主義的印象派畫家。畢沙羅和秀拉分別發展出各自的點描技巧,兩人最終在1885年一見如故,互相分享對顏色理論以及關於顏色本質和效果科學研究的心得。本作充分體現畢沙羅自成一家的點描風格,利用短促分明的筆觸,捕捉明媚陽光下的醉人風光,製造出光影之間鮮明的色彩對比。

畢沙羅在埃拉尼定居期間喜歡描繪城市景觀,同時亦不吝將鄉村風景納入畫中,他經常北行至盧昂附近的海濱小鎮勒阿弗爾,或無數次來往巴黎與朋友和藝商敘舊,甚至遠達倫敦作畫。在長途跋涉後,他會回歸埃拉尼,滌去風塵,繼續用畫筆孜孜不倦地捕捉四周田野裡柔和變幻的光線和色彩。一座鐘塔高聳在本作正中,畫家用羽毛般的點描筆觸,繪出兩座結實龐碩的乾草堆,拱衛在教堂左右。陡直的塔尖將風景一分為二,並將觀者目光牽引至天空,它是構圖的重要部分,也從中隱約可見畢沙羅的畫友塞尚的創作風格。

乾草堆是畢沙羅作品裡反覆出現的題材,早在1873年《乾草堆,蓬圖瓦茲》一畫裡以巨型的金黃色三角形亮相,隨後繼續在埃拉尼的風景畫裡出現,盤踞在他家附近的樹叢和小徑之間。當時並不是每條法國村莊都擁有各自的打穀機,等待機器運抵往往需時數月,穀物因此疊成草堆,在鄉村地區隨處可見。這些龐然巨物散佈在田野各地,每個地區的草堆形狀均略有不同。畢沙羅沿襲以法國鄉村為題的悠久傳統,描繪曾是米勒眼中所見的景物;這個傳統亦為他的印象派同儕莫內所遵循,莫內筆下著名的乾草堆畫作始於1890年,是西方主流藝術史上的重要系列,靈感來自距離埃拉尼不遠的小鎮吉維尼(圖2)。本作裡的乾草堆擁有溫暖的大地色系,它們有如一扇門戶,引領觀者放眼面前觸手可及的人間淨土。

畢沙羅曾經居住在城市氣息較重的蓬圖瓦茲,埃拉尼的寧靜氛圍與之對比鮮明,那令人眼前一亮的自然風光為他提供了充分的創作題材。華金·畢沙羅寫道:「在埃拉尼,方圓幾哩都看不見工業痕跡。[…]目之所及是綿延不絕的牧場和農田。不過埃拉尼的世俗風景毫不平庸乏味。二十年來,畢沙羅將心血集中傾注在這片小小的土地上,以眼前草地的景物為對象,在畫布上勾勒出白楊樹、花園大門和河流,創作了兩百多幅風景畫」(華金·畢沙羅,《畢沙羅:繪畫評論目錄》,頁225)。畢沙羅秉承對微妙光影的執著,將本作裡腳踏實地的乾草堆和昂首挺立的教堂鐘塔昇華成藝術,令小鎮景物化身為強調氣氛的印象派傑作。

印象派及現代藝術晚拍

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倫敦