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拍品詳情

西洋古典油畫日拍

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倫敦

Master of the Pietà
ACTIVE IN SIENA IN THE MID-FOURTEENTH CENTURY
THE CRUCIFIXION
tempera on panel, gold ground, shaped top
56.5 x 25 cm.; 22 1/4  x 9 7/8  in.
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來源

Adolf von Beckenrath, Berlin;
His estate sale, Berlin, Rudolph Lepke, 23–26 May 1916, lot 297 (as Sienese Master, fourteenth century);
With Julius Böhler, Munich, acquired at the above sale for 1200 Reichsmarks;
Fritz August von Kaulbach, Munich, acquired from the above on 16 November 1916 for 3800 Reichsmarks;
His sale, Munich, Hugo Helbing, 29–30 October 1929, lot 154 (as Sienese School, circa 1350) for 3400 Reichsmarks;
Private collection, Europe.

出版

M. Meiss, 'Italian Primitives at Konopištĕ', in The Art Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 1, March 1946, pp. 7–8 and 12, reproduced fig. 12;
G. Freuler, Manifestatori delle cose miracolose: arte italiana del '300 e '400 da collezioni in Svizzera e nel LiechtensteinEinsiedeln 1991, pp. 58–59, cat. no. 14, reproduced in colour.

相關資料

This intimate Crucifixion was published by Millard Meiss in his 1946 article and was among the first paintings to be identified as by the Master of the Pietà. Meiss assembled a group of seven paintings, ascribing them to the same anonymous hand and giving an eighth to his workshop. The group included two panels portraying the Pietà: one in the Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon (inv. no. 20438) and the other in the Institute of Arts, Detroit (inv. no. 35.11-35.12); then the earliest known Sienese treatments of the subject, their author was thus christened the 'Master of the Pietà.'1 Despite this moniker, the Crucifixion was the subject most frequently depicted by the artist; Meiss listed five treatments of the theme, to which we can now add the Crucifixion with the Two Thieves, the Madonna, Saint John and Mary Magdalen published by Cristina de Benedictis in 2001.2

Meiss identified the present panel as forming the right-hand wing of a diptych, uniting it with a Madonna and Child enthroned with saints, formerly in the Foresti collection, Milan.3 Not only are the panels of identical size and shape, but indeed the tondo in the cusp of the present painting, showing the Madonna Annunciate, is matched in the Foresti panel by the Archangel Gabriel, his right side shown in profile in order to face her. Freuler notes the pose of the Madonna as being derived from Simone Martini’s full-length figure in the San Ansano altarpiece, now in the Uffizi, Florence (inv. no. 451-453); her torso facing forwards, she turns her head over her right shoulder with a lowered gaze to face the Archangel.4 The diptych’s composition and construction recalls that of a similar diptych in Konopištĕ Castle, near Prague, and their small scale suggests both were intended for private devotion.5 

The panel is beautifully painted, capturing the moment in which the Madonna, overcome with anguish, collapses and is caught by her pious companions. The artist masterfully conveys the emotion and drama of the scene and the figures at the foot of the cross and angels surrounding the body of Christ are each endowed with a singular expression of personal grief. The drapery is convincingly represented and elegantly arranged: the mantle of Saint John the Evangelist is draped loosely over his shoulder, falling in deep heavy folds from his clasped hands while Christ’s cloth is folded over itself at the waist, falling in tight creases denoting the fine, translucent fabric.   

Scholarship remains divided as to the chronology of this artist’s œuvre. The master’s earlier works, such as the Crucifixion in a private collection also published by Freuler, adhere stylistically to models from the 1350s, showing an intensity of emotion and drama reminiscent of Lippo Memmi. The present panel, however, belongs to the group of panels assigned to the latter part of his career; while still drawing heavily from models by Simone Martini, these later works, likely dating between 1360 and 1375, show a greater affinity with Luca di Tommé and the brothers, Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti.6 The later typology of this Crucifixion corresponds with paintings by Luca di Tommé executed in the late 1360s, thus suggesting a date of circa 1370 for the present work.7

1 See Meiss 1946, p. 8, reproduced figs 14 and 15, respectively.
2 See C. De Benedictis 'Il Maestro della Pietà. Iconografia e Devozione', in K. Bergdolt and G. Bonsanti (eds), Opera e giorni. Studi su mille anni di arte europea dedicati a Max Seidel, Venice 2001, pp. 163–66, reproduced fig. 1.
3 See Meiss 1946, p. 7, reproduced fig. 12.
4 See Freuler 1991, p. 58.
5 See Meiss 1946, reproduced fig. 5.
6 See Freuler 1991, pp. 55–57, cat. no. 13, reproduced.
7 See Freuler 1991, p. 59.

西洋古典油畫日拍

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倫敦