楊‧韋南茨 亞德里安·凡·德·維爾德 1632年生於哈勒姆，1684年卒於阿姆斯特丹 1636至1672年，阿姆斯特丹
- Jan Wijnants
- 款識：畫家簽姓名縮寫J. W.（左下）
- 59 7/8 x 75 1/4英寸；152 x 191.1公分
Jean Baptiste Baron Puthon (1773-1839), Vienna;
His deceased sale, Vienna, Artaria & Co, 1840;
There acquired by E. Netscher, Rotterdam:
From whom acquired by Leonardus Pieter Klerk de Reus, The Hague, for 600 I., by 1842;
Baron Anselm von Rothschild (1803-1874), Frankfurt-am-Main and Vienna (acquired from the above in 1845 for about 600 l. through the agency of Moritz Daniel Oppenheim and the dealer E. Netscher as part of a group of 35 paintings);
Thence by descent to Baron Nathaniel von Rothschild (1836-1905), Vienna, until at least 1903;
Thence by inheritance to his brother, Baron Albert von Rothschild (1844-1911), 1905;
Thence by descent to Baron Alphonse Mayer von Rothschild (1878-1942), 1911;
Confiscated from the above, 13 March 1938 (inv. no. AR 867) and allocated for the Kunstmuseum Linz;
Munich Central Collecting Point;
Repatriated to the Austrian government, and restituted to Baroness Clarice von Rothschild, November 30, 1947;
Selected as a donation to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (inv. 9100), 1948;
Restored to the Rothschild family, March 1999;Their sale, London, Christie's, 8 July
1999, lot 218;
There acquired by the present collector for $3,600,467.
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 1948-1999 (as painted circa 1670).
Inventory of Palais Rothschild, Theresianumgasse, 1903, p. 32, cat. no. 61;
C. Hofstede de Groot, A catalogue raisonné of the works of the most eminent Dutch painters of the seventeenth century based on the work of John Smith, vol. VIII, London 1927, p. 529, cat. no. 438;
Inventory of Palais Rothschild, Theresianumgasse, 1934, p. 187, cat. no. 318;
G. Heinz and F. Klauner, Kunsthistorisches Museum Katalog der Gemäldegalerie 2. Teil: Vlamen, Holländer, Deutsche, Franzosen, Vienna 1963, cat. no. 419;
K. Demus, Katalog der Gemäldegalerie: holländische Meister des 15., 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, Vienna 1972, p. 110 (noting a verbal query on the attribution by J. Nieuwstraten, who has since, through oral communication, confirmed that he does not remember this query and has absolutely no doubt whatsoever regarding the authenticity of the picture, and indeed believes that the Rothschild picture is "one of the best authentic works by Wijnants");
C. Brandstätter, Die Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien: Verzeichnis der Gemälde, Vienna 1991, p. 136, cat. no. 9100, reproduced fig. 523;
"Grande Aste," in Antiquariato, September 1999, p. 44, reproduced;
A. Weber, in Moritz Daniel Oppenheim: die Entdeckung des jüdischen Selbstbewusstseins in der Kunst, exhibition catalogue, Cologne 1999, p. 173 and note 15 (referencing the artist's 1845 Skizzenbuch in the Heinrich Heine-Institut, Dusseldorf, Inv. No.71.154).
K. Eisele, Jan Wijnants: ein Niederländischer Maler der Ideallandschaft im Goldenen Jahrhundert, Stuttgart 2000, p. 138, cat. no. 93, reproduced plate XVIII;
F. Kunth, "Anselm von Rothschild, collector," in The Rothschild Archive, Annual Review of the Year April 2001-March 2002, reproduced p. 39;
S. Lillie, Was einmal war. Handbuch der enteigneten Kunstsammlungen Wiens, Vienna 2003, p. 1032, no. 867;
B. Schwarz, Hitlers Museum. Die Fotoalbum Gemäldegalerie Linz: Dokumente zum "Fuehrermuseum", Vienna 2004, p. 112, cat. no IV/10, reproduced p. 237;
F. Kunth, Die Rothschild’schen Gemäldesammlungen in Wien, Vienna 2006, pp. 102, note 191, 108, 230-231;
Similar compositions by Wijnants can be found in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin (inv. no. 508, 94 by 120 cm.) and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (inv. no. 38, 22.2 by 27.9 cm., one of a pair).
The Rothschild Provenance:
The Rothschild history of this painting by Wijnants is one which highlights the taste for Old Masters by one of the most important collecting dynasties in modern times. The picture was in the collection of Baron Anselm von Rothschild (1803-1874) by 1845. Anselm was the son of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild (1774-1855), founder of the family banking house, and created the K. K. Priv. Österreichische Credit-Anstalt für Handel und Gewerbe, which became the largest bank of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From the moment of their earliest success, each generation demonstrated a diverse yet equally passionate and astute aptitude for collecting, whose cumulative efforts rival the greatest European noble collections including those of the Habsburgs, Medici, and Bourbons.
This Wijnants hung in Anselm’s palatial home on the Renngasse in Vienna, and specifically in the aptly named ‘Gemäldesaal’ or ‘Museum’ room of the home. It was in this home that the core of the Rothschild family’s Dutch painting collection hung, and it was Anselm who was the first member of the family to truly engage with Dutch pictures on a high level. The core of the collection began with Anselm’s 1845 purchase of the entire collection of the Dutch businessman Klerk de Reus. This acquisition en bloc brought into the family collection important pictures by the best names from the Dutch Golden Age. From this moment Dutch pictures became a priority for Anselm and, indeed, in his posthumous inventory 116 oil paintings were recorded, 93 of which were Dutch old masters.
The picture passed into the collections of Anselm’s sons, first Nathaniel von Rothschild and shortly thereafter to Nathaniel’s brother Albert von Rothschild. Baron Alphonse de Rothschild inherited it from his father Albert, and it was during his period of ownership, within days of the Anschluss in March 1938, that the collection of the Viennese branch of the family was seized by the Nazi authorities. The Wijnants was earmarked for Hitler’s never-realized museum complex in his native Linz. Following the conclusion of the War, the picture was recovered by the American 42nd Division from the Nazi storage facilities in the Salt Mines in Alt Aussee before being restituted to Baroness Clarice de Rothschild, Alphonse’s widow, in 1947. The Wijnants was one of eleven key paintings from the Rothschild collection which the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna selected in exchange for the grant of a license to export the remainder of the collection to New York. The Wijnants hung in the Kunsthistorisches Museum from 1948 until 1999 when it was restituted by the Austrian State to Clarice’s daughter Bettina Looram.
1. See P. Sutton in Masters of 17th-Century Dutch Landscape Painting, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam 1987, pp. 492 and 523.