拍品 28
  • 28

格哈德·里希特 | 《黃-綠》

估價
7,000,000 - 10,000,000 GBP
已售出
10,876,500 GBP
招標截止

描述

  • 格哈德·里希特
  • 《黃-綠》
  • 款識:畫家簽名、紀年1982並標記492(左方畫布背面);標記492(右方畫布背面)
  • 油彩畫布,共兩部分
  • 各:260.5 x 200.5公分,102 1/2 x 79英寸
  • 共:260.5 x 401公分,102 1/2 x 157 7/8英寸

來源

康拉德·費希爾畫廊,杜塞爾多夫
烏布利希收藏,杜塞爾多夫
阿亨巴赫藝術顧問,杜塞爾多夫
現藏家購自上述藝術顧問

展覽

卡塞爾,〈文件7〉,1982年6月-10月

紐約,斯佩羅內-韋斯特沃特-費希爾畫廊,〈格哈德·里希特〉,1983年1月

芝加哥,瑪麗安娜·德松畫廊,〈格哈德·里希特〉,1983年5月-6月

杜塞爾多夫,杜塞爾多夫藝術博物館,〈尋樂至終:烏布利希收藏,新藏品1981-1983年〉,1983年9月-10月,16-17頁,品號334,載彩圖

杜塞爾多夫,杜塞爾多夫市美術館;柏林,新國家美術館;伯恩,美術館;維也納,二十世紀博物館,〈格哈德·里希特:繪畫1962-1985年〉(展覽圖錄及作品總錄),1986年1月-9月,258頁,品號492,載彩圖

巴塞隆納,巴塞隆那當代藝術博物館,〈格哈德·里希特:地圖〉,1999年4月-7月

卡爾斯魯厄,ZKM,新藝術博物館,〈藝術收藏〉,1999年12月-2000年3月

巴登-巴登,弗列德·布爾達博物館;愛丁堡,蘇格蘭國家美術館;維也納,亞伯蒂娜博物館;杜伊斯堡,古柏舒默爾現代藝術博物館(MKM),〈格哈德·里希特:私人收藏畫展〉,2008年1月-2009年8月,112-13頁,載彩圖

北京,中國美術館,〈格哈德·里希特:繪畫1963-2007年〉,2008年5月-7月,130-31頁,載彩圖

卡爾斯魯厄,ZKM,新藝術博物館,〈那是甚麼...巴登-符騰堡現代藝術私人收藏一百年〉,2009年12月-2010年4月,274-75頁,載彩圖

倫敦,泰特現代藝術館;巴黎,國家現代藝術博物館,龐畢度中心,〈全景:格哈德·里希特回顧展〉,2011年10月-2012年9月,147頁,載彩圖

出版

魯迪·富克斯,〈沒有風格與文法的大師〉,《藝術雜誌》,1982年6月,42-43頁,載彩圖

展覽圖錄(及作品總錄),波恩,聯邦德國藝術展覽館,《格哈德·里希特1962-1993年》,1993年12月-1994年2月,頁碼不詳,492頁,載彩圖

赫爾穆特·弗里德爾(編),慕尼黑市美術館,慕尼黑,1995年,92-93頁,載彩圖(展覽一角)

加比·索潘,〈寄出,後果自負〉,《焦點》,1996年9月9日,122頁,載彩圖

阿迪·馬爾蒂斯,〈新表現主義〉,阿迪·馬爾蒂斯及米克·林德斯(編),《二十世紀藝術表現主義及原始主義》,海爾倫,1998年,171頁,品號162,載彩圖

克里斯蒂安·薩赫特,〈每幅畫的停留時間:一分鐘〉,《法蘭克福匯報》,2005年10月23日,80頁,載彩圖

喬治·帕策爾,〈所有風格的大師〉,《斯圖加特報》,2008年1月23日,26頁,載彩圖

基斯·哈特利,〈激烈感官〉,《MAP雜誌》,2008/09冬季刊,67頁

史提凡諾·卡斯泰利,〈格哈德·里希特:玩世與自由〉,《藝術》,2011年10月,96頁,載彩圖

瓦爾德馬·雅努薩克,〈格哈德·里希特是最偉大的在世藝術家嗎?〉,《星期日泰晤士報》,2011年10月9日,8-9頁,載彩圖

T.J.克拉克,〈灰色恐慌〉,《倫敦書評》,2011年11月17日,6頁,載彩圖

古耶特米耶·馬多納多,〈抽象圖案〉,《藝術知識(號外)》,第538期,2012年,48頁,載彩圖

容格·海瑟,〈格哈德·里希特〉,《Frieze雜誌》,2012年2月,第144期,131頁,載彩圖

伊薩克·戈德伯格,〈格哈德·里希特:全能畫家〉,《美術雜誌》,2012年6月,88-89頁,載彩圖

傑羅姆·夸尼亞克,〈格哈德·里希特:巨匠在巴黎〉,《藝術知識》,2012年6月,59頁,載彩圖

瓦萊麗·迪蓬謝勒,〈格哈德·里希特:畫家的凱旋〉,《費加羅報》,2012年6月5日,28頁,載彩圖

哈利·坎皮亞尼,〈格哈德·里希特:能夠繪畫所有的畫家〉,《當今藝術》,2012年7月/8月號,33頁,載彩圖

迪特馬爾·埃爾格(編),《格哈德·里希特作品總錄1976-1987年》,第III冊,奧斯特菲爾德爾恩,2013年,267頁,品號492,載彩圖

展覽圖錄,倫敦,大英博物館,《多元德國:巴塞利茲及其同代人,杜爾凱姆收藏》,2014年2月-8月,147頁(內文)

拍品資料及來源

1982 was a remarkable year for Gerhard Richter. In a tremendous outpouring of creativity, the artist had produced a tumult of divergent works that can principally be divided into two distinct, yet philosophically entangled, polarities: the photorealistic candles and the freeform abstract paintings. Of the latter and executed during this standout year, the present work is a landmark feat of conceptual and painterly achievement. It marks the true beginning of Richter’s ground-breaking Asbtrakte Bilder: a career defining engagement that now spans two thirds of the artist’s output. Comprising two panels that together extend to just over 4 metres in length, Gelbgrün is one of the very largest works by the artist; indeed, there is no other painting that surpasses the span of this work and its size is matched only by the brilliance of its facture. As a monumental exposition in abstract mark-making, Gelbgrün is dominated by strident shades of yellow, punctuated by accents of red, and unified by a viscous green layer against a sky blue background. Having made its debut in the historic documenta 7 and featured in countless museum surveys since – including Richter's first major institutional retrospective in 1986, and more recently, the acclaimed Panorama retrospective at Tate Modern and the Pompidou Centre to name only two – Gelbgrün encapsulates a newly realised yet utterly pioneering and critically celebrated artistic direction: the painting's extensive bibliography alone is pure testament to this. In size this painting embodies the very limit of Richter's practice and in composition it is as aesthetically forceful as it is conceptually daring. In 1982 Gelbgrün announced Richter's true arrival on the world stage; 36 years later, this painting embodies the very apex of Richter's artistic achievements.

During the late 1970s Richter had spent a number of years grappling with his practice. The start of a new decade, however, brought with it a resounding sense of ideological clarity. As illuminated by Richter’s supporting statement for documenta 7 in 1982: “In abstract painting we have found a better way of gaining access to the unvisuablisable, the incomprehensible; because abstract painting deploys the utmost visual immediacy… the unknown simultaneously alarms us and fills us with hope, and so we accept the pictures as a possible way to make the inexplicable more explicable, or at all events more accessible” (Gerhard Richter, text for catalogue of documenta 7, Kassel, 1982, in: Dietmar Elger and Hans Ulrich Obrist, Eds., Gerhard Richter - Text: Writings, Interviews and  Letters 1961-2007, London 2009, p. 121). To understand the new impetus behind Richter's work of the early 1980s, it is worth tracing a course through his practice up to this point. 

Since the outset of his career during the early 1960s, Richter has called into question the conceptual relevance of painting within a visual age governed by photography and mechanical reproduction. Navigating a systematic trajectory of incredibly disparate yet thematically related painterly approaches, Richter has ceaselessly pursued the paradoxical aim to paint ‘like a camera’. In the early 1960s Richter began his professional career by producing impersonal black and white photorealistic paintings unified by a sweeping blur, later moving on to a series of colour charts and monochrome grey paintings in order to detach authorial gesture and subjective expression from the painterly act. By the mid-1970s, however, Richter had reached a dead-end: “My paintings became more and more impersonal and general until nothing was left but monochrome grey or colours next to each other, unmodulated colour. Then I was totally outside my paintings. But I didn’t feel well either. You can’t live like that and therefore I decided to paint the exact opposite” (Gerhard Richter cited in: Camille Morineau, ‘The Blow-Up, Primary Colours and Duplications’ in: Exh. Cat., London, Tate Modern (and travelling), Gerhard Richter: Panorama, 2011-12, p. 123). The years between the last colour charts, or Farben, and the creation of the present painting mark a period of experimental ground-work through which Richter discovered, via the squeegee, the legitimacy of free abstraction without the requisite of a photographic source.

Some years prior to the execution of the present work, Richter made a series of paintings based on photographs of thickly applied oil paint and close-up details of brushstrokes. Monumentally blown up yet painted with photorealist veracity, these images of zoomed-in paint echoed the appearance of strange landscapes or sfumato abstractions. Art historian Camille Morineau cogently illuminates this period of Richter’s career as informed and propelled by the ‘Blow-Up’: the stylistic means through which “the figurative can become abstract and the abstract figurative through being enlarged or reduced” (Camille Morineau, ‘The Blow-Up, Primary Colours and Duplications’ in: Ibid., pp. 126-27). To this end, one of Richter’s largest works, Stroke (on Red) (1980), created for a school in Soest, took on revelatory importance in the artist’s pursuit of photo-realistic abstraction. Using a one-metre wide piece of cardboard painted with a single yellow brushstroke, Richter took, enlarged, and projected a photograph of this small sketch onto two monumental canvases – copying in paint the original brushstroke at an enlargement spanning twenty metres. Seen from a distance the image falls into perfect figurative sense, yet viewed up close, the yellow line dissipates into a shroud of droplets that partially reveal and conceal the card’s underlying ground. 

At this point, the squeegee was a totally new and unfamiliar device for Richter. After experimenting with its effect on small canvases, the artist realised its visual and conceptual importance. Unpredictable and semi-automated, the effect of the squeegee's scrape and accretion of paint across the canvas’ surface imparted veils of disintegrating occlusions and exposures that, for Richter, directly correlated with the appearance of the enlarged brushstroke at Soest. As explained by Morineau: “Richer would have noticed that the squeegee produced an image that looked like the blown-up stroke: a veil of colour that partially hides, partially reveals what is underneath. That is to say, Richter’s very modestly sized first squeegee painting, CR: 456-1, a mere 80cm wide, resembles the massive yellow Stroke. It was made without any source image, but it looked similar to paintings made by inflating such an image. In other words, the first squeegee painting mimics the appearance of a ‘blown-up’ stroke even though it was made completely differently. From this point onwards, Richter would have understood this lesson: an abstract painting could be made without any starting image…” (Ibid., p. 127). Using the squeegee as a means to achieve photographic verisimilitude without a source image, the ensuing years witnessed an extraordinary progression towards Richter’s primary intent to paint ‘like a camera’.

As redolent in Gelbgrün, not only do the thick tracts of paint imparted by the squeegee echo the appearance of blown-up paint details, but their application would increasingly begin to mimic a kind of representation tied to forms found in the natural world. The comingling of colours and often unpredictable compositional configurations would hereafter implore the same cognitive viewing experience as his photo works, in which a blurred, half-seen or remembered image is evoked within a field of ceaseless chromatic and textural permutations. Herein, the present work signals the artist’s achievement of true semblance through totally free and subject-less painting; indeed, 1982 marks the year in which Richter truly realised an approach to art-making reflective of the post-modern televisual age.

The notion of reflection is an apposite one when considering the present work and the conceptual framework that brought it into being. Composed of two identically sized canvases that strike a compositional balance across two halves, Gelbgrün imparts a sense of doubling or mirroring; an effect that conceptually echoes photographic – or even cinematic – replication. This is a character trait that links this painting with two contemporaneous yet aesthetically disparate bodies of work: the Speigel (Mirrors) and the photorealistic Eisberge (Icebergs), Kerze (Candles) and Schädel (Skulls). With their soft focus old-master style and larger than life proportions, the Candle and Skull paintings imitate a seventeenth-century vanitas tradition, and at the same time proffer an analogy for photographic replication and enlargement. The latter can also be said for the Eisberge, which, as painted enlargements of photographs Richter took of icebergs and their reflections in glacial water, double-up on the theme of duplication. To this end, however, it is the mirror works that emerge as essential to an overall understanding of Richter’s oeuvre post-1980. Having made their debut in 1981, these pieces replicate the environment that surrounds us in real time. They reproduce the ever-fluctuating, spontaneous, and unknowable conditions that govern reality as contained within the cropped proportions of a cinema screen. On the other hand, however, and akin to the photoreaslitic works, the Mirrors perpetuate and mimic the illusion of phenomenological appearance. This is a condition, however, that the abstract paintings – while entrenched within a post-modern photographic/cinematic condition – nonetheless bypass.

In 1981 Richter began carefully constructing his abstract paintings from a litany of floating forms. Although seeming to extol a random confluence of gestural painterly marks, the early 1980s abstracts were in fact established through a complex process, to quote Morineau, “of development and juxtaposition” (Ibid., p. 131).  As is present in Gelbgrün, many of these works were set against a “three-dimensional” blue space that “evoked the sky and created a primary depth” (Ibid., p. 128). For Richter, this established an elemental pictorial space and naturalistic environment against which a catalogue of brushstrokes in individual colours – predominantly red, yellow, blue and green – could be placed. In the present work, architectural blocks of dense yellow are set against a blue ombre background that begins to turn into sunset orange. The subsequent vertical stuttering of green pigment mediates a set of openwork layers that are sparingly punctuated by both fine and wide brushstrokes in red and white. It is almost as if the picture unfolds through pictorial space, and by implication, like the Mirrors, reflects and imitates the passing of time. With Gelbgrün, however, it is the graze of the squeegee‘s pseudo-mechanical tract-like layers of thick green paint that not only unifies the composition across both panels, but significantly pictures something familiar and knowable about the utterly abstract and unknown. In this sense, the present work is one of the very first glimpses of the extraordinary imagistic reality of the Abstrakte Bilder: like a camera, Richter catches a snap-shot of a visual realm or sensual experience that is utterly beyond known appearance. Having opened a window onto an entirely new universe of imagistic potential in paint, Gelbgrün is a glorious affirmation of Richter’s supporting statement for documenta 7 in 1982: “[T]he unknown simultaneously alarms us and fills us with hope, and so we accept the pictures as a possible way to make the inexplicable more explicable… Art is the highest form of hope” (Gerhard Richter, text for catalogue of documenta 7, Kassel, 1982, op. cit.).

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