Pope Innocenzo XI, born Benedetto Odescalchi, had strong ties with the Polish Kingdom and during his papacy he vigorously pushed to unite the European Christian Kingdoms under Leopold I and the other principalities against the Ottomans. On 12 September 1683 the Holy League liberated Vienna and the Ottomans retreated. After the battle of Vienna, the Standard of the Prophet was sent to the Pope as a symbol of the liberation of the city and triumph of the Holy league.
The lines above the standard identify the texts within the different areas of the flag and give an approximate translation, while the four lines below the drawing mention it being sent from the King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski, through his secretary Tommaso Talenti to Pope Innocenzo XI. Another representation of this standard is printed in J. Loski 1883, p.76 (http://polona.pl/item/266134/), now held in the National Library in Warsaw.
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