The Jewish Russian sculptor Mark Matveevich Antokolsky (1845-1902) was born in Vilnius in present day Lithuania, and attended the Academy of Fine Arts in St Petersburg in 1863. He emigrated to Paris in 1881, having previously lived for some time in Berlin. Antokolsky was best known for his historical bronze subjects, and a statue of Spinoza (1881) is still considered his chef d'oeuvre. Other historical works include Ivan the Terrible (1871) and Peter the Great (1872). Antokolsky exhibited at the Universal Exhibition of Paris in 1878 to international acclaim, receiving the gold medal, the first prize in sculpture, as well as the Légion d'Honneur.
M. Glants, Where is my Home? The Art and Life of the Russian Jewish Sculptor Mark Antokolsky, 1843-1902, Plymouth, 2010, p. 300
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