- Emil Nolde
- 款識：畫家簽名 Emil Nolde（右下）；簽名 Emil Nolde 並題款（內框）
Friedl Bamberger (by descent from the above)
Thence by descent to the present owner
Dresden, Galerie Arnold, Emil Nolde. Gemälde, 1916
Frankfurt, Kunstsalon Ludwig Schames, Nolde. Gemälde, Aquarelle, Druckgraphik, 1917, no. 18
Hanover, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Emil Nolde. Gemälde, Aquarelle, Druckgraphik, 1918, no. 38
Munich, Galerie Neue Kunst Hans Goltz, Emil Nolde, 1918, no. 18
Wiesbaden, Nassauischer Kunstverein, Emil Nolde, 1919, no. 21
Frankfurt, Kunstsalon Ludwig Schames, Emil Nolde, 1920, no. 33
The Artist's Handlist, 1930, listed as '1915 Südseeinsel' (as owned by Heinrich Bamberger)
Martin Urban, Emil Nolde. Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil-Paintings, London, 1990, vol. II, no. 649, illustrated p. 41
Since 1910 Nolde had been engaged in creating a body of highly challenging work, boldly expressionistic and brilliantly hued, which drew its inspiration from the nightlife of Berlin. These works revelled in a violent collision of urban life and raw primitive characterisation. His evenings where taken up by running the gamut of Berlin’s nocturnal entertainments; evenings in which ‘we went to masked balls, into cabarets, to the ice rink. And then we went to the public bars where, as pale as powder and smelling of dead bodies, sat impotent princes of the gutter and frantic women of the demi-monde in their elegant, daring clothes, wearing them like queens’ (E. Nolde, Jahre der Kämpfe, Cologne, 1985, pp. 147, translated from German). These nightly excursions were paralleled during the daytime by his exploration of the cultural artefacts in the Museum für Völkerkunde. As Peter Selz notes, Nolde’s fascination with people of every culture impelled him to seek first-hand experience of the exotic: ‘Over the years Nolde’s interest in primitive art had constantly grown more intense. He even hoped to publish a book on the art of indigenous peoples, based on his studies in the ethnological museums. He saw in this art, with its abstract and rhythmic sense of ornament and colour and its mythic power, an affirmation of his own anti-classical art. […] His own ‘blood and soil’ mystique made him an early proponent of the indigenous art of all peoples. He was delighted, therefore, to be asked by the German Colonial Ministry to participate as a pictorial reporter to investigate standards of health in German New Guinea’ (P. Selz, Emil Nolde (exhibition catalogue), The Museum of Modern Art, New York, p. 33).
Executed upon his return to Europe in 1915, the present work evokes the otherworldliness of the South Seas, and reflects Nolde’s desire to provide not just a depiction of nature, but to express his emotional response to it, to create a visual equivalent of a physical experience. As Max Sauerlandt observed: ‘Nolde understands the sea like no other painter before him. He sees it not from the beach or from a boat but as it exists as itself, devoid of any reference to man, eternally in motion, ever changing, living out its life in and for itself: a divine, self-consuming, primal force that, in its untrammeled freedom, has existed unchanged since the very first day of creation […] He has painted the sea in all its permutations, but above all in stormy agitation, its heavy swell transformed into white breakers as it retreats upon itself, beneath heavy, threatening clouds, behind which the autumnal evening sky bleeds in tones of red and deepest orange’ (M. Sauerlandt, Emil Nolde, Munich, 1921, pp. 49-50).