65
65
# - Augustus II (the 'Strong'), King of Poland (1670-1733).
IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF AUTOGRAPH LETTERS SIGNED, DOCUMENTS SIGNED AND OTHER MANUSCRIPTS RELATING TO THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR AND THE INVASION OF LIVONIA 
Estimation
20 00030 000
ACCÉDER AU LOT
65
# - Augustus II (the 'Strong'), King of Poland (1670-1733).
IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF AUTOGRAPH LETTERS SIGNED, DOCUMENTS SIGNED AND OTHER MANUSCRIPTS RELATING TO THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR AND THE INVASION OF LIVONIA 
Estimation
20 00030 000
ACCÉDER AU LOT

Details & Cataloguing

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# - Augustus II (the 'Strong'), King of Poland (1670-1733).
IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF AUTOGRAPH LETTERS SIGNED, DOCUMENTS SIGNED AND OTHER MANUSCRIPTS RELATING TO THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR AND THE INVASION OF LIVONIA 

1) Four autograph letters signed ("Auguste Roy"; "AR"), one autograph letter, four autograph documents, four documents signed ("Augustus Rex"), to Field Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau, where indicated, in idiosyncratic French and German, giving highly detailed instructions regarding his forces and for the prosecution of the war, with extensive deletions and corrections, 30 pages, plus blanks, various sizes, paper seals, 15 January - 24 April 1700, where indicated

2) Manuscript copies of c.21letters by Field Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau to Augustus II, discussing the requirements of his army and the conduct of the campaign, c.116 pages, plus blanks, 4to, some letters in duplicate copies, one annotated as having been delivered by "le secretaire prive nemitz", Dresden, Hennersdorf and elsewhere, 1699-1703 

3) Six related documents, including a 4-page memorandum of the march route to Poland ("Marchroute vom Crossen aus nach Pohlen") and a 51-page manuscript volume containing extracts of orders relating to the Denmark and Poland marches between 15 January and 28 April 1700 ("Extract...Sr. Königl. Mayest. in Pohlen an mich gegeben und den March nach dannemarck betreffenden Ordres..."); together with a contemporary manuscript wrapper ("Ihro Königl. May. eigenhändige dispositiones und befehle, daraus gezogener Extracte, undt von Sr. Excell. dem H. Gen: FeldMarschall gethaner berichte...") and an inventory of the above items ("Register Über die hierinnen befindliche Königl. Original-Projecte, und Schreiben ingleichen, was Sie sonst durch Sr. Excell. den H. Geh: Rath Beuchling...und den H. Gen: Maj: Benekendorff haben erinnern lassen"), c.68 pages, plus blanks, mostly 4to, 1700  

4) Four autograph drafts of letters, by an unidentified writer (possibly Steinau?), to Augustus II, Johann Reinhold von Patkul and Private Secretary Nemitz, discussing, amongst other matters, the parlous state of the army; and four other related manuscripts, c.34 pages in all, plus blanks, 4to, 1699-1704

...On me mendes de berlin que Rebel et bornstet corresbondes incessamen...et qui leur on commennique ce qui ce passe sur le suges de la Marges...cla me surpran extremmenmen et pourres estre en parti cosse de la difficultes den passages, spendan le lecteur pour me favorrisse a ses sortier les troupes de crossen, quensy nos troupes pourron passe sur le pon a crossen, mes vous aves a vous informes premierremen et si cla est vous passeres plens aissemen et plus viegtes ey pourries pourten prantre (eiyan passe le pon) le chemin de messeritz, ic vous Reccommande une bon ordres et çevirre qui nie ciges occun Ressonnemen des Resson ni de la gerre ni des conjointures, ni lamentation sur lavenier nos officies lonten ussages et cosse par la la desersion mes intelligances den peies ou il se trouves et a moy des domages irreparrables comme illon degastes, ces pour cla qui le leur fos dirre par avances cy illiora quelque un qui ce trouverra en compangyon en partiquelqes et qui Ressonne des afferre qui cerra inmediatemen casse et chasse san conges, il leur fos defendres et par permestre non pleus les correspondences, si ce trouves quelque un qui ce trouves qui nobeisse a ces ordres vous naves qua executes san Regardes la person ma vollontes que je vous marque sur tout quil ni eiges occun desordre ni extorsion en pollonges......Je marche pour obeir aveuglement aux ordres du Roy sans pain sans argent, avec une armé qui ne scait se servir des armes et qui est mecontent et ou il n'y a point d'union, et par un chemin fort dangereux non pas faute de Coignoistre les difficultees mais par pur amour sachant fort bien que je peu perdre la vie et la reputation en meme temps, et que je cour risque que pendant mon absence l'on obligerat ma femme comme du passé a demander l'aumone...   


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Bibliographie

R. E. Dupuy and T. N. Dupuy, The Encylopedia of Military History (London, 1977), p.614

Description

The Great Northern War originated in the secret alliance of Peter I of Russia, Augustus II of Poland (and Elector of Saxony) and Frederick IV of Denmark against Sweden, in the hope of taking advantage of Charles XII's youth (the Swedish king was only 16) to bring an end to Sweden's dominance in the Baltic. The war began in 1700 with Augustus's invasion of the former Polish province of Livonia, then under Swedish control, and ended in 1721 with the treaty of Nystad. It was a war which was to ruin Poland economically and see Sweden supplanted by Russia as the leading power in the Baltic.

During the early phase of the war, Augustus's Saxon troops were under the command of Field Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau (died 1712), who had served in the Bavarian contingent of the Imperial army in the campaign in Hungary against the Turks between 1685-1688 (see lot 64 for a manuscript volume relating to this campaign). In July 1700 he defeated the Swedish general Otto Vellingk at the Battle of Jungfernhof, near Riga. Following a series of defeats in battle, however (Crossing of the Daugava, 9 July 1701, Battle of Klissow, 9 July 1702, and Battle of Pultusk, 21 April 1703), he went into 'retirement' (his own phrase) by entering, for the second time in his career,  the service of the Venetian Republic. His remarkable letters to Augustus during the Livonian campaign in this collection provide a realistic and at times heart-rending counterpoint to the slightly erratic and imperious flow of the king's own communications. One of the draft letters in 4), above, is to the Livonian adventurer Johann Reinhold von Patkul (1660-1707), who was instrumental in forging the anti-Sweden alliance of Poland, Denmark and Russia. When Augustus made peace with Charles XII at Altranstädt in 1706, he delivered Patkul up to Charles, who had him broken alive on the wheel. 


 

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