View full screen - View 1 of Lot 49. An important silver and copper inlaid copper-alloy figure of Shakyamuni Buddha Tibet, circa 13th century | 西藏 約十三世紀 銅合金錯銀銅釋迦牟尼佛坐像.
49

An important silver and copper inlaid copper-alloy figure of Shakyamuni Buddha Tibet, circa 13th century | 西藏 約十三世紀 銅合金錯銀銅釋迦牟尼佛坐像

Property from a European private collection | 歐洲私人收藏

An important silver and copper inlaid copper-alloy figure of Shakyamuni Buddha Tibet, circa 13th century | 西藏 約十三世紀 銅合金錯銀銅釋迦牟尼佛坐像

An important silver and copper inlaid copper-alloy figure of Shakyamuni Buddha Tibet, circa 13th century | 西藏 約十三世紀 銅合金錯銀銅釋迦牟尼佛坐像

Property from a European private collection

An important silver and copper inlaid copper-alloy figure of Shakyamuni Buddha

Tibet, circa 13th century


the hands in bhumisparsha mudra, seated in vajaryankasana

H. 64.8 cm, 25 1/2 in.

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Collection particulière européenne

Importante statue du Bouddha Shakyamuni en alliage de cuivre avec incrustation d'argent et de cuivre, Tibet, vers XIIIe siècle

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歐洲私人收藏

西藏 約十三世紀 銅合金錯銀銅釋迦牟尼佛坐像

There is an old repair to the back of the neck with some repatination around the neck, most likely to secure a crack in the cast. The figure itself and the base are cast separately and possibly associated. There is some surface wear and occasional pitting as visible on the photos, some wear to the gilding on his face and a small dent to the tip of his nose. The figure remains in very good presentation state, it is particularly large and majestic.


In response to your inquiry, we are pleased to provide you with a general report of the condition of the property described above. Since we are not professional conservators or restorers, we urge you to consult with a restorer or conservator of your choice who will be better able to provide a detailed, professional report. Prospective buyers should inspect each lot to satisfy themselves as to condition and must understand that any statement made by Sotheby's is merely a subjective qualified opinion. NOTWITHSTANDING THIS REPORT OR ANY DISCUSSIONS CONCERNING CONDITION OF A LOT, ALL LOTS ARE OFFERED AND SOLD "AS IS" IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS OF SALE PRINTED IN THE CATALOGUE.

Señor Laszlo Bene.

Sotheby’s, New York, 26th March 2003, lot 46.

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Laszlo Bene先生珍藏

紐約蘇富比,2003年3月26日,編號46

This imposing statue of Buddha is representative of an early group of central Tibetan bronzes influenced by eastern Indian Pala period (8th-12th c) traditions. Silver highlights the whites of the eyes, and copper is inlaid in the lower lip, the fingernails and toenails, the chakra mark on the left palm and the soles of both feet. Metal inlay was commonly employed in the embellishment of eleventh and twelfth century metalwork from eastern Indian workshops, a technique that was enthusiastically espoused by Tibetan craftsmen from the eleventh century. The intense expression of the face with bright, engaging eyes and slightly smiling lips is reminiscent of the silver and copper inlaid bronzes from eastern India, such as a standing Buddha found at Kurkihar, Bihar, see Ray, Khandalavala, Gorakshkar, Eastern Indian Bronzes, pls. 255 a, b. In common with the vast majority of larger scale bronzes from eastern India in the medieval period, the lotus pedestal is cast separately from the figure. These similarities with Indian traditions suggest the figure was made in Tibet during or shortly after the period when contact with Indian artists was the principal source of inspiration for Tibetan sculpture and painting. Tibetan bronzes after the fourteenth century are increasingly modelled and gilded in the Nepalese manner, with less emphasis on inlaid metal embellishment.


This iconographic form of Shakyamuni Buddha, in which the historical Buddha is seated in the meditation posture (vajraparyankasana) with right hand in the earth-touching gesture (bhumisparsha mudra), recalls the episode in which he triumphs over Mara (maravijaya) just prior to his enlightenment. Having vowed to remain in meditation until he penetrated the mysteries of existence, Shakyamuni was visited by Mara, a demon associated with the veils and distractions of mundane existence. The Buddha remained unmoved by the diversions with which Mara sought to deflect him from his goal. According to traditional accounts Mara’s final assault was an attempt to undermine the bodhisattva’s sense of worthiness by questioning his entitlement to seek the lofty goal of spiritual enlightenment and the consequent freedom from rebirth. Aided by spirits who reminded him of the countless compassionate efforts he had made on behalf of sentient beings throughout his numerous animal and human incarnations, Shakyamuni recognised that it was his destiny to be poised on the threshold of enlightenment and moved his right hand from the meditation position in his lap and touched the ground, stating, ‘the earth is my witness’. This act of unwavering resolve caused Mara and his army of demons and temptresses to disperse, leaving Shakyamuni to experience his great enlightenment. The episode is said to have taken place in Bodh Gaya, Bihar at the adamantine site (vajrasana) that is believed to have been especially empowered to expedite The Buddha’s enlightenment.

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此像造型碩大,威嚴尊貴,乃一組西藏中部銅像典型,亦可見印度帕拉時代(約750-1200)風格影響。銅像眼白錯銀,下唇、指甲、脚甲、左掌脈輪及雙腳底錯銅。錯銀、銅等金屬之技巧,常見於十一、十二世紀東印度金屬器裝飾,西藏藝匠亦從十一世紀開始仿效此風格。本像刻劃釋迦牟尼佛佛相威嚴,雙目炯炯有神,唇邊略帶微笑,與東印度錯銀銅造像相近。比較一例,比哈爾邦庫爾基哈爾發現一尊立佛,參見 Ray、Khandalavala、Gorakshkar,《Eastern Indian Bronzes》,圖版255a及b。本像蓮花座與佛像分開鑄造,此做法與中世紀時期印度東部多數大型銅像相近。從上述印度造像傳統特色推斷,本像相信乃製於西藏藝匠接觸印度銅匠、從中獲得造像及畫作靈感之時期,或製於此時期稍後。十四世紀以後,西藏銅器較常以尼泊爾風格塑形及鎏金,錯銀銅等金屬之作例較爲少見。


本像屬經典造型,佛像右手下垂作觸地印,寄念釋迦牟尼降魔得道之事蹟。據典,釋迦在東印度菩提伽耶菩薩樹下結金剛坐入定,起誓不悟道不離座。欲界天魔之首摩羅,悉其成佛覺悟之願,心生惡念圖擾阻之。釋迦牟尼對脅迫誘惑不為所動。據說摩羅曾質問釋迦菩薩,生乃宮廷貴族,憑何悟道成佛、超脫輪迴,試圖作最後一擊,毁其修禪。釋迦念及過去種種因緣,前生輪迴所歷劫難、所作佈施,已抵成佛之際,故堅定地垂右手觸地,令大地為證,摩羅與其手下群魔頓時悉皆迸散,剩釋迦於繁星下,悟三明四諦,證無上正等正覺,終成佛於菩提伽耶,是以該地現成佛教聖地。