Senufo artists carve masks to inspire fear, combining visual references to powerful animals, including crocodiles, warthogs, and antelopes. The mask’s sneering mouth with teeth showing and large horns provoke apprehension among those facing it. The sheer size of the mask itself accentuates its intimidating presence. Impressive helmet masks such as this one are commonly found in regions of present-day Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Members of poro and other fraternal associations in these regions sport composite masks during funerals and on other occasions to punish human lawbreakers and deter malevolent spirits.