FRANS HALS AND STUDIO | PORTRAIT OF A FISHERMAN HOLDING A BEER KEG
150,000 - 200,000 USD
Property from the Portland Museum of Art, Maine
FRANS HALS AND STUDIO
Antwerp 1582/83 - 1666 Haarlem
PORTRAIT OF A FISHERMAN HOLDING A BEER KEG
oil on canvas
32½ by 26½ in.; 82.9 by 68.5 cm.
The following condition report has been provided by Karen Thomas of Thomas Art Conservation LLC., 336 West 37th Street, Suite 830, New York, NY 10018, 212-564-4024, firstname.lastname@example.org, an independent restorer who is not an employee of Sotheby's.
This painting is in good, stable condition overall. The figure is well preserved, with the lively brushwork free of wear. In the sky, natural age-related increased transparency of the paint allows the dark underpaint to show through the relatively thinly painted pale-blue, and some of this transparency has been addressed with retouching. Retouching concentrated along the bottom 1-2 inches of the painting has shifted in tone but is not visually disturbing. Mild cupping following the craquelure is found across the painting, the paint appears stable. The plain weave canvas support, which has been lined twice, is planar and stiff. The varnish is even and slightly matte.
Reviving the varnish may provide improved saturation of the darks and a more pleasing surface overall, but further conservation intervention does not appear necessary at this time.
"This lot is offered for sale subject to Sotheby's Conditions of Business, which are available on request and printed in Sotheby's sale catalogues. The independent reports contained in this document are provided for prospective bidders' information only and without warranty by Sotheby's or the Seller."
Private collection, County Louth, Ireland;
Miss Vera Bellingham, England;
By whom sold, London, Sotheby's, 9 June 1932, lot 82;
Where acquired by Asscher & Welker, London;
With D. Katz, Dieren, Holland, by 1933;
With Schaeffer Galleries, Inc., New York;
There acquired by Henry Reichhold, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, by March 1937;
By descent to his wife Ilse Breuer Reichold;
By whom given to the Portland Museum of Art, 1983 (inv. no. 1983.158).
T. Borenius, "A New Frans Hals," The Burlington Magazine, vol. 61, December 1932, pp. 245-6, reproduced (as Frans Hals);
W.R. Valentiner, An Exhibition of Fifty Paintings by Frans Hals, exhibition catalogue, Detroit 1935, cat. no. 27 (as Frans Hals);
G.D. Gratama, Frans Hals Tentoonstelling Oude Kunst, exhibition catalogue, Haarlem 1937, cat. no. 83, reproduced fig. 84 (as Frans Hals);
The Art Digest, 1 March 1937, p. 15, reproduced on the cover (as Frans Hals);
J. Klein, "Franz Hals Show Called Complete," The New York Post, 13 November 1937, p. 15, reproduced (as Frans Hals);
G.H. McCall and W.R. Valentiner, ed., Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture from 1300-1800, exhibition catalogue, New York 1939, p. 87, cat. no. 180, reproduced pl. 66 (as Frans Hals);
A. Chatelet and E.C. Montagni, Tout l'oeuvre peint de Frans Hals, 1976, cat. no. 336, reproduced (as Frans Hals);
S. Slive, Frans Hals, New York 1970, vol. I pp. 144-5, 200, vol. II reproduced pl. 118, vol. III p. 44-45, cat. no. 74 (as Frans Hals);
C. Grimm, Frans Hals: The Complete Work, New York 1990, p. 291 (as Master of the Fisherboy);
R.W. Unger, A History of Brewing in Holland, Leiden 2001, p. 307, cat. no. 30, reproduced (as Frans Hals).
Arnhem Museum, Dutch Masters of the 17th Century, April 1934;
The Hague, Royal Gallery Kleykamp, August 1934;
Haarlem, Frans Hals Museum, November 1934, no. 8;
The Detroit Institute of Art, An Exhibition of Fifty Paintings by Frans Hals, 10 January - 28 February 1935, no. 27;
Northampton, Massachussetts, Smith College Museum of Art, February 1935 (according to a label on the reverse);
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, 1936, no. 68 (according to a label on the reverse);
New York, Schaeffer Galleries, Frans Hals, 9-23 November 1937, no. 16;
Haarlem, Frans Hals Museum, Frans Hals Tentoonstelling, 1 July - 30 September 1937, no. 83;
New York World's Fair, Masterpieces of Art, May - October 1939, no. 180;
New York, Duveen Brothers Inc., Paintings by the great Dutch masters of the seventeenth century: loan exhibition in aid of the Queen Wilhelmina fund and the American women's voluntary services, 8 October - 7 November 1942, no. 17 (as Frans Hals, as with all of the above).
Painted with Hals’s signature bravura brushwork and talent for capturing the character of his subjects, this portrait of a fisherman with a beer keg provides us with a fascinating insight into life in 17th century Holland as well as the working methods of the artist and his studio practice. Rediscovered in Ireland in the early 20th century, the painting was first confirmed as Hals by William Valentiner and published in The Burlington Magazine, where Tancred Borenius wrote that “for sheer beauty of handling, the picture must take high rank even among the works of Frans Hals: and the solidity as well as sensitiveness in the painting of the head is a source of continual delight to the eye… We cannot but acknowledge that here is one of the most notable accessions to the known works of Frans Hals which it has been given us to chronicle for some time.”1
Frans Hals was an artist ahead of his time, and is rightly regarded as one of the most important and influential artists in the history of western art. His fluid brushstrokes, technical agility and brilliantly free handling of paint looked ahead to a style of painting that would not appear until the Impressionists in the late 19th century; indeed his works fell out of favor in the 18th and early 19th century, when realism and Neoclassicism were in style. In the 20th century, however, Hals’s lively portraits of jovial characters were once again and rightly recognized as amongst the most engaging and important pictures of the 17th century.
Though Hals depicted a wide range of characters in his paintings, from drunken buffoons to elegant, high-ranking members of the militia, it was his own cronies that he seemed to capture with the most spirit. The fisherman in the present picture laughs contagiously as he hugs a beer keg from which he no doubt has had more than a few sips. The brewery label of a red stag is that of the Root Hart Brewery in Haarlem, which must have been a favorite of the artist as Hals painted a portrait of the owner of the brewery, Cornelis Guldewagen, in 1660 (fig. 1). Perhaps then the subject here was a favorite and fellow customer of the brewery, or at the least a friendly imbiber of its product.
Seymour Slive, who examined the picture firsthand in 1984, fully supported the painting as by Frans Hals, and dated it to the early 1630s. Slive’s detailed opinion of the picture and the group are described in a letter dated 7 August 1984.2 He grouped it with a small number of half-length paintings of animated figures, including the Fisherboy now in the National Gallery of Ireland and the Fisherboy now in the Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp.3 Claus Grimm, however, excludes this group of paintings from Hals’s oeuvre and attributes them to the Master of the Fisherboy. As in the present painting, the backgrounds of these pictures are filled with light, brushy landscapes which are not consistent with Hals’s style and some were possibly executed by Adriaen Brouwer (c. 1605-1638), who worked in Hals’s studio.
The dating of the Fisherman with a Beer Keg is difficult, and scholars have been inconsistent in their opinions. Valentiner placed it in the mid-1630s and, as described above, Slive agreed. Slive did, however, note in his 1970 monograph that the “breadth of treatment” in the hand and jug suggest a later date, and wondered whether Hals was either anticipating a later style or in his mature years simply returning to a favorite subject. More recently, Pieter Biesboer, Martin Bijl, and Norbert Middelkoop have each examined the painting firsthand; they all date the painting to the 1640s, as a collaborative work between Hals and his studio. Bijl believes that the painting is largely a work by the studio, with corrections by the master made at the very end, including the stag, to enhance the painting. Indeed, the painting affords today’s admirer a captivating examination into the studio practices of the artist.
By the late 1620s, Hals had achieved fame as an artist and had an active workshop, including his sons Harmen Hals (1611-1669) and Frans Hals II (1618-1669), his brother Dirck Hals (1591-1656), and Judith Leyster (1609-1660), amongst others. In teaching his apprentices his tricks for capturing light and shadow in such a distinct, lively manner, Hals would begin to build up the layered contours of a figure and have a student attempt to finish it, and lastly the master himself would give it a final flourish. This sort of fluid, step-by-step enhancement by both the studio and Hals is evident in the present painting, and in their examination, both Bijl and Biesboer point specifically to a number of brushstrokes that are markedly by the hand of the artist. Hals had a unique method of painting dark highlights in the contours of his figures; the 17th century Dutch word for these low-light touches was diepsels, though no current term exists. In the present painting, these diepsels can be seen, for example, around the edge of the sitter’s elbow and arm, in his face under his nose in his mustache, and in his hand, around the wrist and the thumb. It is in these mostly black and darker touch ups that one can most clearly see Hals’ hand. Indeed it is Hals's virtuosity in these final, brilliant brushstrokes that make this painting come together as the impressive and lively picture we see today.
We are grateful to Pieter Biesboer, Martin Bijl, and Norbert Middelkoop for their assistance in the cataloguing of this painting.
1. See T. Borenius, under Literature, p. 246.
2. Available upon request.
3. See S. Slive, under Literature, 43, cat. no. 70. For Grimm’s listing of the group, see his Slive concordance in Grimm, under Literature, p. 291.