A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像
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A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像

Estimate: 100,000 - 150,000 GBP

A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY | 明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像

Estimate: 100,000 - 150,000 GBP

Lot Details

Description

A LARGE GILT-LACQUERED BRONZE FIGURE OF AVALOKITESHVARA

MING DYNASTY, 15TH/16TH CENTURY

明十五/十六世紀 漆金銅觀音菩薩坐像


cast seated in dhyanasana with the right hand lowered in varadamudra, while the left held in abhayamudra, dressed in loose robes elaborately decorated with floral borders, further embellished with beaded jewellery around the chest, the face with serene expression and downcast eyes, the hair gathered into a high chignon save for two long plaits falling off the shoulders, framed by an elaborate headdress in openwork centred by the Amitabha Buddha

Height 62.8 cm, 24¾ in.

Condition Report

There are overall flakes/losses to the gilding and lacquered areas, and nicks to the extremities. Some discolouration can be seen on the chignon. One tip of the crown (second from the left) was possibly replaced.


中文內容僅供參考,請以英文原版為準。漆金部分見些許剝落/缺失,邊角處見少許細磕。髮髻有幾處變色。頭冠左方第二尖或經替換。


"In response to your inquiry, we are pleased to provide you with a general report of the condition of the property described above. Since we are not professional conservators or restorers, we urge you to consult with a restorer or conservator of your choice who will be better able to provide a detailed, professional report. Prospective buyers should inspect each lot to satisfy themselves as to condition and must understand that any statement made by Sotheby's is merely a subjective, qualified opinion. Prospective buyers should also refer to any Important Notices regarding this sale, which are printed in the Sale Catalogue.

NOTWITHSTANDING THIS REPORT OR ANY DISCUSSIONS CONCERNING A LOT, ALL LOTS ARE OFFERED AND SOLD AS IS" IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS PRINTED IN THE SALE CATALOGUE."

我們很高興為您提供上述拍品狀況報告。由於敝公司非專業修復人員,在此敦促您向其他專業修復人員索取諮詢,以獲得更詳盡、專業之報告。


準買家應該檢查每款拍品以確認其狀況,蘇富比所作的任何陳述均為專業主觀看法而非事實陳述。準買家應參考有關該拍賣的重要通知(見圖錄)。


雖然本狀況報告或有針對某拍品之討論,但所有拍賣品均根據印於圖錄內之業務規則以拍賣時狀況出售。

Cataloguing

Catalogue Note

Impressive for its large proportions and crisp casting, this figure appears to depict Avalokitesvara, the bodhisattva of Compassion and Mercy, recognisable from the small figure of Amithaba Buddha in his crown. Adorned with luxurious necklaces and earrings and a tall floral crown, the bodhisattva is shown seated with his legs crossed, his head and eyelids slightly lowered in a contemplative gaze, which captures his inner tranquillity and spiritual peace. The figure was covered overall in a thick layer of gilt lacquer, which is still visible in places, providing a glimpse of its original splendour.


Stylistically this figure follows in the sculptural tradition of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), when Tibetan Buddhism became the court religion. The Mongol court intensified political, religious and artistic contacts with Tibet, which resulted in the emergence of a new style of Buddhist art. With the founding of the Ming dynasty, Tibetan-Buddhist sculptures continued to exert a strong influence, and under the patronage of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1403-1424), Tibetan and Nepalese artisans were employed in Beijing to furnish the halls and palaces in the newly-established capital. By the 16th and 17th centuries, Buddhist gilt-bronze figures gradually moved away from Tibetan models and began to depict Avalokitesvara with feminine features. This piece appears to represent an intermediary stage between these two sculptural traditions; the figure’s well-defined waist and bare chest adorned with beaded jewellery recall the gilt-bronze sculptures of the early 15th century, while the slightly stiff pose, small lips and upturned chin, as well as its floral earrings and crown are precursors of late Ming dynasty sculptures.


Avalokitesvara is the most popular bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism, and is known in China as Guanyin, short for Guanshiyin (The one who perceives the sounds of the word). As the earthly manifestation of Amitabha Buddha, his crown features an image of a meditating Amithaba. Guanyin is described in Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra, first translated in Chinese in AD 286, where the bodhisattva is referred to as Lokesvara (Lord of all beings) and Lokenath (Lord and protector of all beings). In this text, Buddha describes Guanyin as the one who compassionately provides release and deliverance to all those that suffer, characteristics embodied in this figure through its hand gesture: the varadamudra expresses the deity’s compassion and devotion to the salvation of all sentient beings, while the abhayamudra symbolises protection and peace. 


Such large figures of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara are unusual, and no closely related example appears to have been published. Compare gilt-bronze figures of bodhisattvas attributed to the 16th and 17th century, such as two slightly smaller examples sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, the first, 30th/31st October 1994, lot 394 (one of two figures), and the second, 30th April 1995, lot 606. See also a larger gilt-bronze figure, attributed to the 15th century, offered in our Hong Kong rooms, 8th October 2009, lot 1725.


本像尺寸龐大,鑄工精湛,刻劃觀音菩薩,憑其頂戴阿彌陀佛可辨。觀音戴華美項鏈,耳環及高冠,冠飾花卉,盤腿而坐,垂首第眉作沉思狀,面相慈悲。此像原本施厚重漆金,部份現時仍舊可見,透露古物原有風華。


藏傳佛教於元朝成爲宮廷宗教,本像依照元代造像傳統風格製成。蒙古宮廷與西藏於政治、宗教及藝術等各方面建立更緊密之聯系,從而發展佛教藝術新風。明代開國後,藏傳佛教仍具影響力,永樂帝(1403-1424年在位)支持朝廷聘請西藏及尼泊爾藝匠潤飾新都宮殿,時至十六及十七世紀,鎏金銅佛像逐漸遠離西藏風格,觀音像更具女性特徵。本像似屬兩種造像傳統之過渡風格,腰肢明顯、胸膛飾華麗珠寶,帶有十五世紀初期鎏金銅造像風格,而坐姿端正,小嘴唇、下頷上翹、耳環飾花卉、寳冠等則為晚明造像之前身。


觀世音,亦稱觀音,乃大乘佛教當中信衆最廣之菩薩,頂戴阿彌陀佛。《妙法蓮華經》述,佛祖形容觀音普度衆生,救苦救難,本像一手結施願印,表現觀音慈悲,一手結無畏印,象徵平安。

尺寸如本品龐大之觀音菩薩像身爲鮮見,疑為孤例。比較數件鎏金銅像作例,斷代十六及十七世紀,兩例售於香港蘇富比,尺寸較小,其一售於1994年10月30/31日,編號394(兩像其中一像),其二售於1995年4月30日,編號606。另比一例,尺寸較大,斷代十五世紀,售於香港蘇富比2009年10月8日,編號1725。

Important Chinese Art
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