Deng Fujia, zi Yongji, a native of Fujian, was an accomplished bamboo carver during the Yongzheng and Qianlong periods. Characterized by the high complexity of the design and meticulously executed details, Deng's carving style represents a new development from the traditional Jiading School of literati bamboo carving and became highly influential from the 18th century onward. Compare two bamboo carvings by Deng Fujia in the Shanghai Museum, Shanghai, one carved with Tao Yuanming under a pine tree, inscribed with a very similar artist's seal, the other, a washer, carved in the form of a gnarled pine tree, with the Yongjia mark arranged vertically, exhibited in Literati Spirit. Art of Chinese Bamboo Carving, Shanghai Museum, Shanghai, 2012, cat. nos 33 and 34 respectively. See also a related bamboo brushpot, carved in a similar style, depicting ladies and boys engaging in various leisurely pursuits, attributed to the 18th century, sold at Christie's Hong Kong, 30th May 2006, lot 1493.