The Russian Imperial court acquired numerous brooches in gold, diamonds, and guilloché enamel as presentation gifts for ladies. Etiquette demanded that a strict hierarchy was observed; the wife of a general would receive a more valuable brooch than the wife of a captain. Jewellery historian Ulla Tillander-Godenhielm, in her study of presentation awards during the reign of Nicholas II, found that a brooch like this, made of gold and set with a double-headed eagle or Imperial crown in diamonds, would have been given to the wife of a Major-General, State Counsellor, or Aide-de-Camps. Wives of captains, school teachers, and others would receive a brooch with a similar design, but not set with diamonds. On Imperial presentation brooches, see Ulla Tillander-Godenhielm, The Russian Imperial Award System, 1894-1917 (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 198-199.