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PROPERTY FROM THE RUTHMERE MUSEUM, ELKHART, INDIANA

Auguste Rodin
CARIATIDE TOMBÉE PORTANT SA PIERRE, AGRANDISSEMENT D'UN TIERS
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4,000,0006,000,000
LOT SOLD. 7,553,600 USD
JUMP TO LOT
7

PROPERTY FROM THE RUTHMERE MUSEUM, ELKHART, INDIANA

Auguste Rodin
CARIATIDE TOMBÉE PORTANT SA PIERRE, AGRANDISSEMENT D'UN TIERS
Estimate
Irrevocable Bids
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures that the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder or may receive a fixed fee in the event he or she is the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, the fixed fee (if applicable) for providing the irrevocable bid may be netted against the irrevocable bidder’s obligation to pay the full purchase price for the lot and the purchase price reported for the lot shall be net of such fixed fee. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. If the irrevocable bidder is advising anyone with respect to the lot, Sotheby’s requires the irrevocable bidder to disclose his or her financial interest in the lot. If an agent is advising you or bidding on your behalf with respect to a lot identified as being subject to an irrevocable bid, you should request that the agent disclose whether or not he or she has a financial interest in the lot.
Guaranteed Property
Guaranteed Property. The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. If every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
4,000,0006,000,000
LOT SOLD. 7,553,600 USD
JUMP TO LOT

Details & Cataloguing

Impressionist & Modern Art Evening Sale

|
New York

Auguste Rodin
1840 - 1917
CARIATIDE TOMBÉE PORTANT SA PIERRE, AGRANDISSEMENT D'UN TIERS
Inscribed A. Rodin
French limestone
Height: 25 in.
63.4 cm
Conceived circa 1881-82 and carved in 1893-94.
Read Condition Report Read Condition Report

This work will be included in the forthcoming Catalogue Critique de l'oeuvre sculpté d'Auguste Rodin currently being prepared by the Comité Rodin in collaboration with Galerie Brame & Lorenceau under the direction of Jérôme Le Blay under the archive number 2011-3727B.

Provenance

Berthe Dumon, Tournai, Belgium (acquired from the artist between January and July 1894)

Mme Baron Armand van Zuylen van Nyevelt (née Cécile Dumon), Belgium (by descent from the above in 1946)

Robert Desprechins de Gaesebeke (Bernard Manier), St. Denis-Westrem, Belgium (acquired from the above through a Ghent gallery in 1950)

Charles Feingarten (Feingarten Gallery), Los Angeles (acquired from the above in February-March 1969)

Walter R. Beardsley, Elkhart, Indiana (acquired from the above in 1969)

A gift from the above in 1978

Exhibited

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Rodin Rediscovered, 1981-82, no. 153, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Fallen Caryatid)

Literature

Ionel Jianou & Cécile Goldscheider, Rodin, Paris, 1967, listed p. 88

Athena Tacha Spear, Rodin Sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, 1967, illustrations of other examples pp. 58-59

Athena Tacha Spear, A Supplement to Rodin Sculpture in The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, 1974, illustrated pl. 107S

John L. Tancock, The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin, The Collection of the Rodin Museum, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 1976, illustrated p. 51

Jacques de Caso & Patricia B. Sanders, Rodin's Sculpture, A Critical Study of the Spreckels Collection, San Francisco, 1977, illustrations of the bronze version pp. 155 & 157

Albert E. Elsen, In Rodin’s Studio. A Photographic Record of Sculpture in the Making, Ithaca, 1980, illustrations of the bronze version pls. 34-35

Daniel Rosenfeld, Auguste Rodin's Carved Sculpture, vol. I, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Palo Alto, 1993, p. 359, illustrated p. 695

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain, Rodin. The Gates of Hell, Paris, 2002, p. 72

Albert E. Elsen & Rosalyn Frankel Jamison, Rodin’s Art. The Rodin Collection of the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University, New York, 2003, illustrations of the bronze versions pp. 229-33

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain, The Bronzes of Rodin. Catalogue of Works in the Musée Rodin, vol. I, Paris, 2007, listed p. 246, illustrations of other examples pp. 245-49

Catalogue Note

“I am glad to, at last, be able to write to you about the pieces of Art I admired at your house in November,” wrote collector Berthe Dumon to Rodin in February of 1894. During her visit to the artist’s studio, Mme Dumon had been entranced by a plaster form of a seated woman with arms entwined, head cradled on a shoulder and body pressed between the ground below and a stone above, and had commissioned from the artist a larger version in stone. Eager to receive the sculpture, Mme Dumon wrote to Rodin and rhapsodized about the work: “I felt at first sight that between her and I there was a very strong bond; this valiant woman with great pain whom fate may bend but can never crush. I long to see her, to contemplate her here at any time. It will be a great comfort for me, like a confirmation of the necessity of the struggle. Will it be a long, long time before you give it to me? Please tell me, I beg you, roughly when the time will come so that I can limit my impatience.”

Six months later, after delays and continued correspondence between Rodin and Mme Dumon, the sculpture was at last ready for her collection. While an official name seemed elusive in 1894—tentatively called “Destiny” by Mme Dumon in her letters—three years later, Rodin gave the present work an official title, presenting it as La Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre (The Fallen Caryatid Carrying her Stone) in an 1897 exhibition.

This was not the first time Rodin had taken the classical caryatid as his subject. From the late 1860s through the 1870s, Rodin created a variety of traditional caryatids that integrated into architectural settings in lieu of columns or other supporting structures, including the three Caryatids of St. Gilles he carved for a house on the boulevard Anspach in Brussels (see fig. 1). Executed in 1874 these figures share more in common with their Ancient predecessors found in the Erechtheion (a temple to Athena and Poseidon which crowns the Athenian Acropolis) than with Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre (see fig. 2).

An ancient symbol of a young, pious woman, the caryatid first emerged in Ancient Greece, with the six graceful columns atop the Acropolis being the best known examples. Inspired by women who led religious processions with baskets of live reeds balanced atop their heads, the image migrated to functional architectural elements in religious structures and later a more decorative interpretation in painted motifs and curvilinear Baroque and Rococo usage (see fig. 3). In all applications Caryatids had a male counterpart in the figure of Atlas, derived from the Greek Titan who bore the sky on his shoulders. The associated labors of these collective figures evoked strength or struggle; they could be austere, playful, resolved or fierce in expression. It was not until Rodin created Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre, that an inward, Symbolist interpretation of this figure came to the fore.

The figure of the fallen caryatid was first created as a part of Rodin’s masterpiece, torment and lifelong opus The Gates of Hell, a visual symphony of Dante’s The Inferno (see fig. 4). The Gates started as a commission for a door in the planned Musée des Arts Decoratifs, though neither the door nor the museum were ever completed. Measuring over twenty feet in height, The Gates incorporate hundreds of figures, including many of the artist’s most famed works: The Thinker, The Kiss, Adam, Eve (see fig. 5). Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre was placed at the upper left of this portal, partially shrouded by scrolling decoration. Her form was created within the first year or so of The Gates commission and was exhibited as an independent sculpture as early as 1883.

“The first example of this work, now lost,” writes Daniel Rosenfeld, “was shown in marble in the exhibition of the Cercle de la rue Vivienne in the winter of 1882-83, and thus it is the first subject from The Gates of Hell to have been reworked into a freestanding marble and exhibited…. The Fallen Caryatid was conceived… as an independent psychologically expressive sculpture …. She is one among the damned whose inner torment is reflected by her twisted posture and by the burden that she bears, which suggest a moral more than a physical oppression. Rodin has achieved this effect through the torsion of the figure’s volumes which seem simultaneously energized and equilibrated. The figure is composed in opposing planes that move from side to side and front to back, as in the counterbalance of the knees, hips and shoulders, or of the head and stony mass that the figure supports. This torsion conveys the Caryatid’s physical oppression, and at the same time evokes her struggle against it; the sculpture’s drama and vitality emerge from this conflict. There is a dramatic effect also in the surface treatment of the various carved versions in which smooth yet tautly modeled flesh is set against the rough, pitted stone. This textural contrast further emphasizes the figure’s muscular tension” (D. Rosenfeld, “Rodin’s Carved Sculpture” in Rodin Rediscovered, op. cit. pp. 88-89).

Rodin was the artist who almost single-handedly realized the impact of Modern sculpture. With his deep understanding of emotion and its manifestations in the human body, he became the founding father of a new and free form of plastic expression that soon conquered all of Europe. Yet in spite of his innovative approach, Rodin sought to root his art in the achievements of the Old Masters, particularly Michelangelo, whom he admired above all. Indeed, the physical pose and combination of highly finished and unfinished carving in the present work recalls Michelangelo’s Crouching Boy, plaster casts of which were found in museums and art schools throughout Europe in the nineteenth century (see fig. 6).

Rodin would prove influential not only for fellow visual artists, but also for writers and poets. Rainer Marie Rilke, the noted German poet, moved to Paris at the turn of the twentieth century to write a biography of the sculptor. He became so close to Rodin that he worked for a period as his secretary, philosophizing over their daily encounters. His descriptions of Rodin’s sculptures remain some of the most eloquent and evocative ever written. Of the Caryatid he opined: “A woman’s form kneels crouching, as though bent by the burden, the weight of which sinks with a continuous pressure into all the figure’s limbs. Upon every smallest part of this body the whole stone lies like the insistence of a will that is greater, older and more powerful, a pressure, which it is the fate of this body to continue to endure. The figure bears its burden as we bear the impossible in dreams from which we can find no escape” (reproduced in A.E. Elsen & R. Frankel Jamison, op. cit., p. 233).

Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre was viewed by Rodin and his circle as one his most accomplished and important sculptures. Commissions for the form were received in a variety of media including stone, bronze and marble. In the bronze the stone was, at one point, replaced with an urn, and in Rodin’s later years an enlargement was made.

Examples of Rodin's Caryatids in all media can today be found in preeminent museum collections around the globe, though the rarity of carved stone is notable. It is thought there may have been a first stone version, whose location is unknown. Two other examples were carved in stone, the present work of 1894 and another carved before 1897 which entered the collection of the Musée Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels in 1918 (see fig. 7). Setting apart these carved stone works is the variance in finish in the surfaces between the woman’s figure and the other elements of the sculpture. This incongruity was part of the artist’s intent and is documented in his letters to Mme Dumon which detail, among other things, the delay in his completion of this piece.

Illuminating this unpublished correspondence, John Tancock writes: “On January 24, 1894, Rodin informed Mme Dumon that the execution of the stone had just commenced and that it ought to be finished in two months. Six months later, however, work was still in progress, as was indicated in a letter of June 14: ‘I ought to have written to you to tell you that the work on your caryatid is still going on and that I was very much mistaken in the lapse of time that I asked for its execution. However, I hope to send it to you from here in six weeks. The sculpture ought to have been done much more quickly, but it is like all sculpture, it is the modeling and not that material that prevents one form going quickly. Please excuse me and believe me when I say that I will be happy it if meets with your approval when it is finished…. The caryatid has not been left one day. Work on it has not ceased.’ On July 22 he was able to tell Mme Dumon that the stone was finished…. He indicated that he had made a number of deliberate changes in the course of execution: ‘I have left the figure more unfinished for the effect of the stone, and it has become much more expressive.’ He also gave her instructions as to the best way of displaying the sculpture—‘keep the group in plenty of shadow, against the light’ (J.L. Tancock, op. cit., pp. 40-41). Rodin’s careful consideration of surface finish and the detail regarding display shows the high degree of pride he took in this particular sculpture. The documentation of this work’s creation combined with its inherent emotion and tragic, eternal beauty single it out as a masterpiece of the artist’s oeuvre.

Cariatide tombée portant sa pierre remained with Mme Dumon and her descendants from its creation until 1950. In 1969 the stone was acquired by Walter R. Beardsley of Elkhart, Indiana and subsequently donated by him to the Ruthmere Museum where his son, the Founding Director Robert B. Beardsley, curated its display. The work has formed a part of the museum's collection until today. 

Impressionist & Modern Art Evening Sale

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