The form of this vase derives from early Ming ewers, such as one illustrated by John A. Pope, Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine, Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, 1956, pl. 54 (bottom right). Another Qianlong reign-marked vase of the same pattern and size is illustrated in Xu Huping, Treasures in the Royalty: The Official Kiln Porcelain of the Chinese Qing Dynasty, Shanghai, 2003, p. 239; and another vase in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, illustrated in Blue-and-White Ware of the Ch'ing Dynasty, Book II, CAFA, Hong Kong, 1968, pl. 4. A number of these has been sold at auction, including a vase from the Toguri Collection, sold in our London rooms, 9th June 2004, lot 12, and another from the Shorenstein collection, sold at Christie's Hong Kong, 1st December 2010, lot 2969.