The iconography of the pure water bottle and the willow branch identify this figure as Willow Guanyin, whose story can be traced to an episode in the Dharani Sutra, which describes the bodhisattva sprinkling water from a willow branch to rid the city of Vaisali of disease and thereby saving the population. A gilt-bronze shrine attributed to the Sui to early Tang dynasty showing the Willow Guanyin flanked by two bodhisattvas is in the collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, and was exhibited in Yuan cang Yazhou fojiao yishu zhi mei/Imprints of Buddhas: Buddhist Art in the National Palace Museum Collection, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 2015, cat. no. 48. See also a Sui/early Tang dynasty gilt-bronze figure of Willow Guanyin in the Chang Foundation Collection, published in Jintong fo zaoxiang tulu/Buddhist Images in Gilt Metal, Taipei, 1993, cat. no. 28; one attributed to the Northern Qi to Sui dynasty in the collection of the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco published in René-Yvon Lefebvre d'Argencé, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Sculpture: The Avery Brundage Collection, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Tokyo and New York, 1974, pl. 67; and an early Tang dynasty example in the same collection published in ibid., pl. 81. A Sui dynasty gilt-bronze figure of Avalokiteshvara, with very similar modeling to the present example, but holding a jewel rather than a willow branch, is published in Saburō Matsubara, Chinese Buddhist Sculpture: A study based on bronze and stone statues other than works from cave temples, Tokyo, 1966, pl. 223.