Prince Victor Napoléon (1862-1926);
Prince Louis Napoléon (1914-1997)
Bernardo Falconi, Fernando Mazzocca & Anna Maria Zuccotti, Giambattista Gigola 1767–1841 e il ritratto in miniatura a Brescia tra Settecento e Ottocento, Geneva/Milan, 2001
Count Carlo Catinelli (1780–1869), a pupil of the Academy of Engineers in Vienna, pursued a varied military career. He fought at Marengo (1800) and was wounded at Caldiero (1805). After a long convalescence he returned to service under Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Este. Forced to leave the Austrian army after the Treaty of Schönbrunn (1809), which gave his birthplace, Gorizia, to France, he joined the British army in Sicily, serving under Lord William Cavendish-Bentinck. In later life he addressed the Italian question in a substantial tome, Sopra la questione italiana, first published in Italian in 1858. Catinelli was unequivocal about his viewpoint: ‘Il mio nome suona italiano; sono però per nascita e per sentimento - il lettore non tarderà ad accorgersene -austrico’ (My name sounds Italian; however, I am by birth and feeling - the reader will not be slow in noticing - Austrian’). He viewed those seeking independence from Austria as ‘feccia del popolo’ (‘scum’) and believed that the catholic church could only survive in Italy under Austrian rule. In 1854 Emperor Franz Josef made him a hereditary knight of the Austrian Empire in recognition of his steadfast loyalty to the Austrian cause.
Johann Maria Monsorno (1768–1836), was a miniaturist favoured by the high aristocracy of Vienna. Two of his most noted works are portraits of Maria Beatrice d’Este, dated 1808, and Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria, dated 1809, mother and sister of Archduke Maximilian Joseph (private collection, Milan, see Falconi et al, figs 11, 12).
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