Development on the N1 rocket began in 1959, under the direction of Sergei Korolev. It was designed to deliver a payload beyond Earth orbit, and ultimately to the Moon. The N1-L3 model would carry the L3 lunar payload, consisting of an Earth departure stage and a lunar landing assist stage, in addition to a single-cosmonaut lunar lander and a two-cosmonaut lunar orbiter. By November of 1967, a mock-up was complete and on the launch pad. The completed N1 was very slightly shorter than the Saturn V, but had a greater lift-off thrust, though as a result of technical difficulties, and a subsequent lack of funding, the N1 never successfully completed a test flight.
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