While horses have long been associated with power and wealth in China, as those most sought after were imported or sent as tribute gifts from Central Asia, jade carvings of horses in reclining poses first appeared in the Jin (1115-1234) and Yuan dynasties (1279-1368), such as one in the British Museum, London, illustrated in Jessica Rawson, Chinese Jade from the Neolithic to the Qing, London, 1995, pl. 26:15, where the author notes that these carvings have been traditionally attributed to the Tang dynasty (618-907) despite the lack of similar excavated examples.
For representations of horses in different poses in contemporaneous paintings and wood block illustrations, which are known from the Yuan dynasty, see for example the painting Eight Horses on Pasture Enjoying their Freedom by Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322), published Osvald Sirén, Chinese Painting. Leading Masters and Principles, vol. 6, London, 1958, pl. 15.
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