Follower of Hieronymus Bosch
- Hieronymus Bosch
- The Harrowing of Hell
- oil on oak panel
- 43.6 x 58.3 cm.; 17 1/8 x 23 in.
Thence by descent to his grandchildren.
This particular composition is known in a number of versions by followers of Bosch,2 such as the panel of slightly larger dimensions in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna,3 the painting at Hampton Court Palace,4 and the version in the Indianapolis Museum of Art.5 All these works are most likely North Netherlandish imitations, dating to the mid-sixteenth century, in the wake of high demand for such pictures in the style of Bosch. It is generally accepted, however, that they are most probably compilations of adapted motifs, rather than derivations of a lost original by Bosch himself. The enormous head holding open his own mouth, for example, is found in other paintings from the artist's following, such as The Vision of Tundale, in the Denver Art Museum,6 but not in any of Bosch's own works, while the tent it wears as a hat appears in several autograph paintings, such as the triptych of The Last Judgment at the Akademie der bildenden Künste, Vienna.7
Dendrochronological analysis has identified the last annual growth ring in the present panel as dating to 1498. Assuming a minimum growth of eight sapwood rings, this panel could have been in use from circa 1506 onwards, although a date of use in the late 1510s is more plausible. The present work would therefore appear to be among the earliest of the known versions and as such, is a highly significant addition to this group.
1. See L. Campbell, The early Flemish pictures in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen, Cambridge 1985, p. 11, under cat. no. 7.
2. See G. Unverfehrt, Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1980, pp. 203 and 289, under cat. no. 159a.
3. Inv. no. 2715; oil on panel; 55 x 74 cm.; see Die Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien, Vienna 1991, p. 87, reproduced plate 292.
4. Inv. no. 753; oil on panel; 58.7 x 81 cm.; see Campbell 1985, pp. 10–12, cat. no. 7, reproduced fig. 7.
5. Inv. no. 63.10; oil on panel; 58.1 x 72.1 cm.
6. Inv. no. 1948.37; oil on panel; dimensions unknown.
7. Inv. no. GG-579-581; see Bosch Research and Conservation Project, Hieronymus Bosch Painter and Draughtsman. Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London 2016, pp. 290–307, cat. no. 17, reproduced in colour.