Compare a closely-related censer formerly in the E.T. Chow Collection, sold in our Hong Kong rooms, 19th May 1981, lot 422, with a different inscription at the shoulder, indicating that it was commissioned for offerings to Wenchang (Wenchang Dijun zuoqian), and inscribed with an apocryphal Yongle cyclical date at the rim. A smaller similarly painted example, with a six-character Wanli reign mark at the rim, was sold in our Hong Kong rooms, 29th November 1977, lot 42. Compare also an unmarked censer of similar form, painted with mythical beasts, in the Percival David Foundation, now in the British Museum, illustrated in Margaret Medley, Illustrated Catalogue of Underglaze Blue and Copper Red Decorated Porcelains, London, 1976, no. A625.