In the Chan Buddhist tradition, Kasyapa, another of Buddha's principal disciples, is considered the first Indian patriarch, and Ananda the second. The pair are often portrayed on either side of the Buddha. This arrangement is commonly found in caves in China dating from the Northern Wei dynasty (386-535), with Ananda standing to Buddha’s right and Kasyapa to the left, as seen in the Central Binyang Cave at Longmen, illustrated in Angela Falco Howard, Li Song, Wu Hung and Yang Hong, Chinese Sculpture, New Haven, 2006, p. 238, fig. 3.39. This standard iconographic arrangement continued through the Sui, Tang, Liao and Song periods, to the Ming dynasty.
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