These two female musicians are absorbed by the rhythmic beat they are producing with their instruments. They appear to be holding wooden claves (janjira), snapping them together to produce a clacking sound like castanets. Related examples can be seen in the hands of a female musicians and dancers in several Mughal paintings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (see Masselos, Menzies and Pal, Dancing to the Flute, Music and Dance in Indian Art, Sydney, 1997, pp.189, 237, figs. 147, 144; Beach and Koch, King of the World, London, 1997, no.25) and also in the hands of Sultan Ibrahim 'Adil Shah of Bijapur in a well-known painting in the British Museum (see Zebrowski, Deccani Painting, London, 1983, fig.59). A similar instrument is depicted in a Ragamala illustration from Kangra of circa 1825 (see Masselos, Menzies and Pal, op.cit., p.187, fig.191).