Originally completed in 1860, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was built in honour of Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. It was demolished 70 years later in accordance with official Soviet state atheism. Stalin intended to build a vast monument to socialism known as the Palace of the Soviets on the site, but due to the outbreak of war, lack of funding and problems with flooding, the plans were never fulfilled. Instead the site was transformed into the world's largest open air swimming pool under Krushchev. In 1990 the construction of an exact replica began, largely funded by donations from ordinary citizens.