After the Xuande period this technique was rarely used until it was revived in the Qing dynasty. A fragmentary bowl with red fish swimming in the opposite direction was recovered from the middle Chenghua (AD 1465-87) stratum; see A Legacy of Chenghua: Imperial Porcelain of the Chenghua Reign Excavated from Zhushan, Jingdezhen, Tsui Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1993, cat. no. B 22. A rare Zhengde (AD 1506-21) bowl with four underglaze-red fish in extremely pale greyish silhouettes in the Palace Museum, Beijing, from the Qing court collection, is a good illustration of the difficulty encountered by the kilns with the red glaze technique during that period; see The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Blue and White Porcelain with Underglazed Red, vol. 2, Shanghai, 2000, pl. 220.
This design became highly popular in the Yongzheng period (AD 1723-35), when it was produced in a range of sizes. A similar Yongzheng bowl with less detailed silhouettes in the Nanjing Museum was included in the exhibition Qing Imperial Porcelain of the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong Reigns, The Art Gallery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1995, cat. no. 49; another with more flared rim, in the Qingjiang County Museum, Jiangxi province, is published in Zhongguo taoci quanji [Complete series on Chinese ceramics], Shanghai, 1999-2000, vol. 14, pl. 162; another bowl in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is published in Rose Kerr, Chinese Ceramics. Porcelain of the Qing Dynasty 1644-1911, London, 1986 (rev. ed. 1998), pl. 11; and one in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, was included in the Museum’s exhibition Ming Chenghua ciqi tezhan [Special exhibition of Ming Chenghua porcelain], Taipei, 1977, cat. no. 100, together with rare examples of Chenghua and Wanli (AD 1573-1620) mark and period, respectively, cat. nos. 98 and 99.
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