Eyüp is a municipality (belediye) and district of the city of Istanbul, Turkey. The district extends from the Golden Horn all the way to the shore of the Black Sea. Eyüp is also the name of a prominent neighbourhood and former village in the district, located at the confluence of the Kağıthane and Alibey streams at the head of the Golden Horn. The Eyüp neighbourhood is a historically important area, especially for Turkey's Muslims. Although this area lies outside the city walls, the village pre-dated larger Istanbul since two local streams provided plenty of fresh water. In the Byzantine period, the village was known under the name of Kosmídion (Κοσμίδιον), and got its name from a church and later a monastery - both dedicated to Saints Cosmas and Damian  - which were built on the steep hill behind today's Eyüp Mosque. The monastery was later fortified, and during the First Crusade it hosted the army of Godfrey of Bouillon during his sojourn in Constantinople. The area has long been used as a place of burial, largely due to its position outside the city of Istanbul. There are Christian churches and cemeteries as well as a large Muslim cemetery. The major Muslim shrine gives the area its current name and prominence.
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