Lot 1318
  • 1318


4,000,000 - 6,000,000 HKD
bidding is closed


carved from a single massive block of white marble naturalistically depicting the distinguished elder statesman, seated upon an elaborately carved throne supported by animal heads and claw feet, his frail-looking features of his sunken high cheekbones and deeply furrowed forehead belie his keen mind, his downcast gaze and sadness of his eyes witnessed the basic end of the dynasty he was trying to save, his shoulders slightly hunched carrying the burden of his country, dressed in his official court robe with large archaistic and floral medallions, worn under a matching short padded jacket with long sleeves, his traditional Manchu queque neatly braided down his back and head donned with a Manchu winter court hat with an upturned brim covered with silk floss tassels and topped with a button denoting his rank and a tubular fitting with a single peacock plume marking his distinction of service to the throne, his feet shod in traditional Manchu style cloth boots with thick soles, his right hand resting on his lap, while his left clutches an opened scroll - possibly the 'Boxer Protocol' - with the tassel hanging,  two heavy volume Western-bound books lie stacked before his feet


Imperial Marble Works, Kensington, London 1902-1906.
Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1977.

Catalogue Note

This magnificent life-size figure of Li Hongzhang (1823-1901) is most naturalistically sculpted. It was commissioned by the Chinese Imperial Government shortly after his death in 1901. Created between 1902 and 1906 from photographs at the Imperial Marble Works in Kensington, London, it was never delivered to China because of the Revolution of 1911. Particularly notable is its fine sympathetic rendering: the hunched shoulders of the statue bear the burden of Li's responsibilities, which spanned nearly half a century, while the down-cast gaze and sadness of the eyes reflect his disappointment. 

Li was one of the most prominent leaders who made strenuous efforts to modernise China during the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s to 1890s. A native of Qunzhi in Modian xiang, Anhui province, Li showed remarkable ability from his youth, studying under the virtuous scholar-official Zeng Guofan and obtaining the highest level in the Imperial Examination system at only 24 years of age. Appointed as an official in 1844, he came in contact with Westerners from early in his career through his involvement in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) and the Nian rebellion (1852-68). During this period Li became convinced that China needed modernisation if it wanted to protect its sovereignty.

In 1870 Li began his unprecedented 25-year term as governor-general of the capital province, Zhili, and launched several major modernising projects. These initiatives included sending young Chinese to the United States and England to learn new skills, a commercial steamship line, a railroad, a telegraph line and two modern naval bases. During this time Li also engaged heavily in negotiations with the Japanese, the British, the French, and other treaty powers. Although his efforts were not ultimately successful, this is largely a reflection of China's relative military weakness, of which Li was acutely aware. The humiliating defeat of China by Japan in the 1894 Sino-Japanese War greatly undermined his political standing. Nevertheless his prestige was still such that he was the principal Chinese negotiator with the foreign powers who captured Beijing on September 7, 1901, and signed the Boxer Protocol ending the Boxer crisis but at the price of huge indemnities for China. Li died two months later in Beijing.

Li Hongzhang was a sophisticated politician, a diplomat and a pioneer in introducing modern warfare technology to China. Through modernisation he hoped to protect China's sovereignty, but within the traditional and conservative China he was hampered by the system he was trying to protect.