Hans Wichmann, Industrial Design, Unikate, Serienerzeugnisse. Die Neue Sammlung: Ein neuer Museumstyp des 20. Jahrhunderts, Munich, 1985, p. 227 Siegfried Gronert, Türdrücker der Moderne, Cologne, 1991, pp. 20, 21, 23, 24 Bauhaus Archiv, Die Metall Werkstatt am Bauhaus, Berlin, 1992, p. 208
The Dammerstock Siedlung, a unique housing complex in Karlsruhe, was designed in 1928 to alleviate the city's severe housing shortage. Walter Gropius was chosen to be the artistic director for this project. He applied the principles of NeuesBauen (New Building) which is represented in clean simple forms, flat roofs, and simplified window elements. The apartments were small with a modern functional structure. These twenty pairs of door handles designed by Walter Gropius came directly from these buildings. The simple functional design of these Bauhausdrücker has made them a classic of the 20th century.