Livy, Les Décades, in the French translation of Pierre Bersuire, illuminated manuscript on vellum
Livy, Les Décades, in the French translation of Pierre Bersuire, illuminated manuscript on vellum


Western Manuscripts and Miniatures and the Korner sale


Livy, Les Décades, in the French translation of Pierre Bersuire, illuminated manuscript on vellum

375 leaves, plus 3 early flyleaves, 450 mm. by 318 mm., lacking a single leaf before fol. 1 in the first decade and leaves in the first decade foliated 13-14, 22, 38-40, 49 and 51 and a leaf foliated 2 in the second decade, else complete, collation: i7 [of 8, lacking vi], ii8, iii6 [of 8, lacking iii-iv], iv8, v7 [of 8, lacking vi], vi5 [of 8, lacking iv-vi], vii7 [of 8, lacking vii], viii7 [of 8, lacking i], ix-xviii8, xix7 [of 8, lacking iv], xx-xxvii8, xxviii7 [apparently complete], xxix-xxxi8, xxxii-xxxiii7 [apparently complete], xxxiv8, xxxv4, xxxvi-xxxix8, xl7 [apparently complete], xli-xlv8, xlvi8+1 [an unfoliated part-leaf with missing text added after fol. 83 in the third decade], xlvii6, xlviii-xlix8, l2, with horizontal catchwords, contemporary foliation in red ink (followed here) excludes the tables of chapters and runs through three difference sequences for each of the Decades (1-138, 1-[124], and 1-111), double column, 59-64 lines, ruled in brown, written-space approximately 343 mm. by 233 mm., written in grey-brown ink in a regular gothic bookhand, headings in red, capitals touched in red, paragraph-marks in red or blue, 2-line initials throughout in burnished gold on pink or blue grounds with white tracery, 4-line initials below every miniature in gothic floral designs in colours on burnished gold panels with marginal extensions of burnished gold ivyleaves and coloured flowers on black hairline stems, eighty-seven large miniatures (including four together on third decade, fol. 1r, and two together on third decade, fol. 111v), the first hundred or so leaves damaged by damp with the central portions of many leaves cockled and stained with small holes and some loss of text on about 25 leaves and about five miniatures partly damaged, occasional wear elsewhere, end flyleaf creased, most of the manuscript sound and much of it in excellent condition, extremely fine sixteenth-century binding à la fanfare, c.1580, red morocco over pasteboards, profusely gilt around multiple compartments enclosing a monogram apparently formed of addorsed 'D's and 'X', spine in compartments similarly gilt (later title added), gilt arms of Viefville added later in central compartments on sides, medieval vellum endleaves and pastedowns transferred from the original binding, slight wear but sound, probably the largest fanfare binding in existence (exceeding the largest recorded, 398 mm. by 269 mm., cf. A. Hobson and P. Culot, Italian and French 16th-Century Bookbindings, 2 ed., Bibliotheca Wittokiana, 1991, pp. 163-4, no. 67, and the tall but narrow altar card sold in these rooms, 7 December 1999, lot 32)

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(1) Written by the scribe Maistre Jeannin de Rouen and illuminated by Maistre Henri d'Orquevaulx for Jean III de Vy (d. 1449), son of Jean de Vy, chevalier.  Jean III was seigneur of Saint-Jure, écuyer and échevin of Metz.  He is shown in the miniature on the last page, in armour, with his arms, together with portraits of the scribe and the illuminator.  There is an account of his family in the Baron d'Hamoncelles, Metz ancien, II, 1865, pp. 11-12.  His Book of Hours, with the same arms and those of his first wife, Perrette Baudoche, was acquired in September 2007 by the Médiathèque in Metz (see below).  He bequeathed the Livy to his great nephew, Pierre Baudoche, son of Jean Baudoche, as is revealed (with further family information) in the long inscription on the last page, and the name in large gothic script inside the lower cover, "Piere baudoche leschevin filz signour iehan baudoche chevellier".

(2) The further descent of the manuscript is recorded in a sixteenth-century hand below the colophon.  It passed to Gui de Baudoche, whose daughter, Vulcane, married Antoine de Hamels, seigneur de Lincourt and governor of Corbie; their daughter, Eugénie, married Antoine, sire de la Viefville, and the book descended to their grandson, Ferdinand de la Viefville, comte d'Orville.

(3) The arms added to the binding are those of his descendant, René-François, marquis de la Viefville (1652-1719), governor of Poitou.  According to Chardin, 1811, the manuscript belonged to M. de Thou and to M. de Menars.  One of the tools on the binding (reproduced by G. D. Hobson, Les reliures à la fanfare, 1935, p. 29, fig. 38) was used by the binder described by Hobson as the "doreur au premier fer à palmette" (ibid, pp. 59-60), who did indeed work for the great collector Jacques-Auguste de Thou (1553-1617), and the unidentified monogram on the binding is like that used by de Thou; but it is not the same, and the book cannot have been in the de Thou library, which was bought in 1680 by Jean-Jacques Charron, marquis de Ménars (1643-1718).

(4) Auguste Chardin; his Catalogue livres précieux, manuscrits et imprimés sur peau-vélin, Paris, 1811, pp. 108-9, no. 424 ; his sale, Paris, 9 February 1824, lot 2391.

(5) Sir Thomas Phillipps (1792-1872), bought in 1824, with pencil notes by him, and his stencilled crest (MS. 266); Phillipps sale in these rooms, 1 July 1946, lot 19, to Major Abbey.

(6) Major J. R. Abbey (1894-1969), J.A. 3024, with his booklabel; his sale in these rooms, 1 December 1970, lot 2876.

(7) Bought by a private collector from Dawson's, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters from the 13th to the 20th Century, cat. 218 (1971), no. 4; and by descent to the present owner.



P. Durrieu, Bulletin de la Société nationale des Antiquaires de France, 1888, pp. 301-3.

P. Durrieu, 'Les manuscrits à peintures de la bibliothèque de sir Thomas Phillipps à Cheltenham', Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes, 50, 1889, pp. 395-6, no. xxxiv.

L. Delisle, Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V, I, Paris, 1907, pp. 327-8.

P. Durrieu, 'La peinture en France depuis l'avènement de Charles VIII jusqu'à la fin des Valois', in A. Michel, ed., Histoire de l'Art, IV, ii, Paris, 1911, p. 734.

F. de Mély, Les primatifs et leurs signatures, Les miniaturistes, Paris, 1913, pp. 165-66.

P. d'Ancona and E. Aeschlimann, Dictionnaire des miniaturistes du Moyen Âge et de la Renaissance, Milan, 1949, p.107.

Bénédictins de Bouveret, Colophons de manuscrits occidentaux des origines au XVIe siècle, III, Fribourg, 1973, p. 473, no. 11266.

F. Avril, 'L'enlumineur Henri d'Orquevaulx et la production des ateliers messins au XVe siècle', Metz enluminée, Autour de la Bible de Charles la Chauve, Trésors manuscrits des églises messines, Metz, 1989, pp. 69-80 and 154.

F. Avril and N. Reynaud, Les manuscrits à peintures en France, 1440-1520, Paris, 1993, p. 182.

P. Hoch, Trésors de bibliothèques de Lorraine, Paris, 1998, p. 137.

S. N. Fliegel, The Jeanne Miles Blackburn Collection of Manuscript Illuminations, Cleveland, 1999, p. 37.

Enlumineurs messins du XVe siècle (Carnets de Médiamothi, no. 2), Metz, 2007.

N. Barker, 'News and Comment', The Book Collector, 57, 2008, p. 362.



Of the four supreme French translations of Latin texts commissioned and promoted by the kings of France (the Histoire ancienne from the Creation, Livy's Décades, the Cité de Dieu of Augustine, and the Bible Historiale from Peter Comestor, this is the only one which is truly secular.  Even the Grandes Chroniques de France has a theme of the Christian destiny of the French royal family, and the Roman de la Rose is ultimately a religious poem.  Titus Livius (59 B.C. – 17 A.D.) was the greatest Roman historian.  He began his gigantic Ab Urbe Condita between 27 and 25 B.C., and published it in instalments.  It originally comprised 142 books, divided at an early date into 'decades' of ten books each.  Only decades I and III-IV were known in the Middle Ages, and much of Livy's original text is still lost.  Around c.1350, Jean le Bon, king of France 1350-64, commissioned a French translation from Pierre Bersuire, friend of Petrarch, of all of Livy that was then known.  It was probably finished in 1358, and a copy was doubtless presented to the king on his return from captivity in England in December 1360 or January 1361.  It was the first translation of any major classical author into French.  The text was then apparently revised and edited in the court of Charles V, king of France 1364-80, probably by Raoul de Presles and others.  It was provided with chapter titles, marginal notes, and cycles of pictures.  The oldest copies of the new edition are probably BNF ms fr 20312 ter, and Bibl. de Ste-Geneviève, ms 777, both c. 1370 and from the library of Charles V himself.  Thereafter it became immensely popular in the court.  27 manuscripts of the entire text are known, together with 38 further partial copies, containing one or two of the three decades.  The Duc de Berry owned five (three survive).  The text was first printed in Paris in 1486-87.  Recent accounts of the text include M. Manion, The Felton Illuminated Manuscripts in the National Gallery of Victoria, 2005, pp. 204-89, and M.-H. Tesnière, 'Les Décades de Tite-Live traduites par Pierre Bersuire et la politique éditoriale de Charles V', Quand la peinture était dans les livres, Mélanges en l'honneur de François Avril, ed. M. Hofmann and C. Zöhl, 2007, pp. 345-51

A list of manuscripts, including the present copy, is on the website of Frédéric Duval and Françoise Vielliard, Miroir des classiques (éditions en ligne de l'École des Chartes).  Of the 27 with the complete text of all three decades, 16 manuscripts are in French libraries (ten in the Bibliothèque nationale), two in Brussels, two in Geneva, and one each in The Hague, London (British Library, Royal MS 15.D.vi), Melbourne, the Beinecke Library at Yale, and the Vatican.  That leaves two in private hands, the present manuscript, and Phillipps MS 116, sold in these rooms, Phillipps sale, 28 November 1973, lot 594, to Howe of Edinburgh, now in a European private library.  There was also a manuscript recently on the market in Germany.  Of the copies with only one or two decades, 17 are in the Bibliothèque nationale, and only one is recorded outside Europe (Harvard, Houghton Library, Richardson MS 32).

the history of the dedication copy

Until very recently, the dedication copy for Jean le Bon was not known to survive.  What may be the original manuscript was recently acquired by the Bibliothèque nationale, and is now ms. n.a. fr 27401 (cf. M.-H. Tesnier in Revue de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, 23, 2006, pp. 81-85).  On the last page of the present manuscript is a remarkably detailed account of the transmission of the text.  It tells that King Jean originally had the book translated.  He gave it (or a copy, at least) to his daughter, Marie, duchesse de Bar (1344-1404), and she presented it to her son, Edouard, duc de Bar, who was killed at Agincourt in 1415, and so it passed instead to his brother, Cardinal Louis de Bar, who died in 1431, naming his heir as King René of Anjou (1409-1480).  When René went to Italy in 1438 to claim the kingdom of Sicily, he entrusted the manuscript to Robert de Baudricourt (c.1400-1454), protector of Joan of Arc, bailli of Chaumont (in the duchy of Bar), who lent it to Jean de Vy, eschevin, son of Jean de Vy, chevalier, who had it copied.  This detailed provenance of the royal copy is not confirmable but it is credible, and it is known only from the present inscription.  If the manuscript was indeed transcribed directly from an exemplar from the royal library, it is likely to be of exceptional purity.  The text was checked gathering by gathering, for the words "correct[us] est" are added at end of quires 1-3 and 24 (the latter in red ink).


This is one of the most profusely illustrated of all known copies of Livy.  The standard cycle of illustrations for manuscripts of Les Décades had 30 pictures altogether (one for each book), arranged as multiple frontispieces of 4 images at the start of each of the three decades, with 26 smaller miniatures throughout the text.  This was the norm, even for the grandest royal copies.  Some have fewer pictures, or none at all.  The present manuscript, however, also illustrates many chapters within each book.  As recorded by Duval and Vielliard, the most richly illustrated copies of the text, in ascending order, are: Bordeaux, BM ms 730, late fourteenth century, 1 large and 44 smaller miniatures; BNF ms fr 20071-72, decades I and III only, mid-fifteenth century (the famous copy attributed to Fouquet), 4 large and 48 smaller miniatures; London, BL Add MS 16622, decade I only, late fifteenth century, 2 large and 62 smaller miniatures; BNF. ms fr 30, early fifteenth century, 3 large and 76 smaller miniatures; the present manuscript, with one large and 83 smaller miniatures; and BNF ms fr 34, decade I only, dated 1471 (made for Louis de Gruuthuse), 1 large and 97 smaller miniatures.  For its date, therefore, this is the most extensively illustrated Livy known, and it is the second most rich in existence.

This is not unimportant.  Either the artist was copying an exemplar, which (on the manuscript's own evidence) had descended from Jean le Bon, or he was inventing new pictures.  If the former is the case, this is a unique glimpse of a lost cycle of painting at the heart of the fourteenth-century royal court.  If it is the latter, then here is that absolute rarest of phenomena in medieval art history, when an artist is devising compositions never attempted before, and we are face to face with the actual moment of creation.

The scenes are everything that the Middle Ages are supposed to be: battles, jousts, knights, castles, ships, pageantry, banquets, armour, trumpeters, kings, maidens, journeys, and so on, in a profusion of colour and chivalric splendour.

Henri d'Orquevaulx

This is the long-untraced unique manuscript which names Henri d'Orquevaulx as the artist.  Its significance was first realised in 1888 by Paul Durrieu, who optimistically attributed the Hours of Jean de Vy and Perrette Baudoche to the same hand.  In 1989, François Avril revisited that attribution, and published the present manuscript, then untraced, from the black-and-white plates in the Abbey catalogue of 1970.  Until now, the manuscript has never been reproduced in colour.  Avril ascribed three other manuscripts to Henri d'Orquevaulx, an imperfect chronicle of Pierre de Herenthal with three miniatures (BNF ms lat 4931A), and two Books of Hours (BNF ms lat 10533, Use of Metz, and Bibl. de l'Arsenal ms 563, Use of Laon).  A "Maistre Henri" is documented as an illuminator and painter in Metz from 1437, when he was commissioned by Jean de Vy to paint murals, until 1452 (cf. Wagner, p. 16). Since 1989, Henri d'Orquevaulx of Metz has become the central and best-known figure in late medieval book illumination from Lorraine, for even now very few illuminators are securely identifiable by name.  When the Hours of Jean de Vy came onto the market, the present manuscript was cited in the sale catalogue, Les Enluminures, Three Illuminated Manuscripts from the Collection of Comte Paul Durrieu, 2004, p. 17.  The Book of Hours was bought by the Médiathèque de Metz, and was exhibited in 2007.  Other miniatures now ascribed to Henri d'Orquevaulx include cuttings from Guillaume de Deguileville, Pèlerinage de la vie humaine, now mostly in the Fitzwilliam Museum (MS 1-2003; cf. the sale in these rooms, 6 December 2005, lot 17), and leaves from a Book of Hours, now mostly in the Cleveland Museum of Art (cf. Fliegel, Blackburn Collection, 1999, pp. 37-42, nos. 29-32).

Not only does the present manuscript name the artist and the scribe, but it also includes a self-portrait of Henri d'Orquevaulx, hitherto unpublished, seated at his desk illuminating a manuscript.  Self-portraits of identifiable medieval illuminators are exceedingly rare.

The subjects of the miniatures are:

1, first decade, folio iv, Pierre Bersuire presenting his translation to Jean II, seated on his throne, 10-line historiated initial, 54 mm. by 65 mm., initial partly formed of a dragon, full border including two griffins, a civet and a vase of roses, a peacock, a puppy and a pot of daisies, a pelican in her piety, and a deer in a fenced enclosure; 2, first decade, folio 3v, the Sabine women convincing the Roman and Sabine armies not to fight against each other, 53 mm. by 106 mm.; 3, first decade, folio 7r, the battle between the three brothers Horatii and the three brothers Curiatii, representing Rome and Alba respectively, fought by hand to hand combat in an enclosure in a landscape, 60 mm. by 107 mm.; 4, first decade, folio 9v, the Etruscans Lucumo and his wife Tanaquil departing from the town of Janiculum in a wagon with all their household and an eagle flying down to seize Lucumo's hat which it delivers to Tarquin in Rome, to show that they should go to Rome, where Lucumo is renamed Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, 60 mm. by 104 mm.; 5, first decade, folio 16v, the Romans worshipping Mars, an elder kneeling before a gold statue on an altar, accompanied by a woman and a younger man with a scroll [this is the opening of decade I, book II, but the picture is appropriate for decade III, book II, a variant which occurs in other manuscripts, cf. Manion, p. 234], 103 mm. by 104 mm.; 6, first decade, folio 19r, Horatius on the Sublician bridge, single-handedly preventing the Etruscans from entering Rome, 64 mm. by 105 mm.; 7, first decade, folio  20r, Mutius Scaevola placing his right hand in the fire to show Roman bravery to King Lars Porsena, 60 mm. by 104 mm.; 8, first decade, folio 26v, Gaius Marcius (Shakespeare's Coriolanus) yielding to the entreaties of his mother Venturia and his wife Volumnia with her children, and agreeing to return with the army to Antium rather than fighting further against Rome, 64 mm. by 105 mm.; 9, first decade, folio 18v, the Roman soldiers, having slept well (unlike their enemies) emerging refreshed from their tents and massacring the Etruscans and the Volscians, 64 mm. by 108 mm.; 10, first decade, folio 32v, the consul Appius ordering the execution of all Roman patricians who were unarmed, 62 mm. by 105 mm.; 11, first decade, folio 33r, the consul Quintus Fabius calming the patricians, by granting them land confiscated in the wars with the Volscians, the consul as a bearded elder in a pulpit, the nobles seated on the right, 105 mm. by 105 mm.; 12, first decade, folio 42v, the corrupt Appius seated in judgement over the dispute between Lucius Virginius and Marcus Claudius, over Virginius's virtuous daughter Virginia, whom Claudius falsely claimed was the daughter of a slave and therefore his property, 72 mm. by 109 mm.; 13, first decade, folio 43v, Virginius stabbing Virginia, preferring to set her free by death than to risk losing her into slavery, attended by Virginia's old nurse (who had been consulted) and watched by Appius on his judgement seat, 75 mm. by 108 mm.; 14, first decade, folio 46r, Quintus Claudius beseeching Appius to release his son from prison, 63 mm. by 108 mm.; 15, first decade, folio 48r, Titus Quintius addressing the people of Rome, accusing them of disobedience and strife, 60 mm. by 107 mm.; 16, first decade, folio 50r, Gaius Canuleius addressing two seated members of the senate, arguing that marriages should be allowed between patricians and plebeians, 97 mm. by 105 mm.; 17, first decade, folio 54r, a Roman legate playing chess [dice, according to Livy] with Tolumnius, king of the Veientines, and being killed as a result of an ambiguous remark by the king while playing, 71 mm. by 108 mm.; 18, first decade, folio 54v, Aulus Cornelius Cossus leading the cavalry ambush on King Tolumnius and killing him, 72 mm. by 10 mm.; 19, first decade, folio 58v, the Romans and the Volscians fighting all night, a battle under a starry sky, 62 mm. by 108 mm.; 20, first decade, folio 64r, the Romans appointing new tribunes (in contrast to the Veii, who reverted to kings), a bearded statesman addressing a group of noblemen, starry sky, 86 mm. by 108 mm.; 21, first decade, folio 69r, the sack of the Etruscan city of Veii after a long siege, directed by the Roman commander Marcus Furius Camillus, 65 mm. by 108 mm.; 22, first decade, folio 70v, the sons of the nobles of Falerii, whose schoolmaster had wickedly handed them over to the Romans, whipping their master under the orders of Camillus, 64 mm. by 107 mm.; 23, first decade, folio 73v, the defeat of the Romans at the Battle of Allia and the sack of Rome itself by the Gauls, 60 mm. by 109 mm.; 24, first decade, folio 76r, the Gauls ransoming the city of Rome, seated at a counting-table weighing gold coins, 50 mm. by 107 mm.; 25, first decade, folio 78r, the re-foundation of Rome under the direction of Camillus, now appointed dictator for a second term, 89 mm. by 107 mm.; 26, first decade, folio 83r, Manlius Capitolinus, who had saved Rome when the geese cackled at night, eventually being thrown from the Tarpeian rock for attempted tyranny, 81 mm. by 106 mm.; 27, first decade, folio 88r, Appius Claudius addressing the people of Rome, 68 mm. by 108 mm.; 28, first decade, folio 89v, the death of Camillus, being stabbed as he lies in bed (he was actually killed by the plague in Rome), 76 mm. by 107 mm.; 29, first decade, folio 90v, Marcus Curtius sacrificing himself by leaping in full armour on horseback into the hole which had appeared in the Roman forum, 63 mm. by 108 mm.; 30, first decade, folio 95v, Marcus Valerius on horseback fighting a giant Gaul and being helped by a crow which settled on his helmet and distracted his opponent, 65 mm. by 108 mm.; 31, first decade, folio 100v, the Privernates and Samnites sending envoys to the Roman consul to ask for peace, 97 mm. by 108 mm.; 32, first decade, folio 102r, Titus Manlius Torquatus ordering the beheading of his own son for disobeying orders not to fight the enemy, 65 mm. by 106 mm.; 33, first decade, folio 107r, the Lucanian army killing Alexander, king of Epirus, as his horse tumbles into a flooded river (as prophesied by the oracle of Jupiter of Dodona), 66 mm. by 108 mm.; 34, first decade, folio 112r, the Samnites under Gaius Pontius disguised as shepherds who trick the Roman army and lead them into a trap, 110 mm. by 107 mm.; 35, first decade, folio 113r, two Romans surrendering to Gaius Pontius and offering their swords to him, 61 mm. by 107 mm.; 36, first decade, folio 114v, the consuls Spurius Postumius and Titus Veturius being offered to Gaius Pontius as naked prisoners, and being rejected, 62 mm. by 107 mm.; 37, first decade, folio 123r, Lucius Papirius addressing the Roman troops and urging them to victory over the Samnites, 80 mm. by 109 mm.; 38, first decade, folio 125v, a battle of knights on horseback, perhaps the victory of Junius Bubulcus and Marcus Titinius over the Aequi, 97 mm. by 107 mm.; 39, second decade, folio 10r, the battle between Scipio and Hannibal, 78 mm. by 107 mm.; 40, second decade, folio 14r, the battle between Hannibal and the Gauls, 94 mm. by 108 mm.; 41, second decade, folio 23r, Hannibal defeating the Romans at the Battle of Cannae, 70 mm. by 108 mm.; 42, second decade, folio 27r, the people of Compsa welcoming Hannibal after his victory at Cannae, 87 mm. by 110 mm.; 43, second decade, folio 37r, Marcus Marcellus and Hannibal each preparing their troops, 69 mm. by 109 mm.; 44, second decade, folio 38r, the people of Locri handing over the keys of their city to the Romans, 81 mm. by 109 mm.; 45, second decade, folio 41r, Gracchus in battle, 76 mm. by 107 mm.; 46, second decade, folio 48v, Roman priests and bishops kneeling before a gold statue of a god in a shrine, 90 mm.by 107 mm.; 47, second decade, folio 50r, the Romans executing the Tarentine hostages, 72 mm. by 106 mm.; 48, second decade, folio 53r, Titus Quintus in battle, 68 mm. by 107 mm.; 49, second decade, folio 57r, Cornelius Scipio in battle, 77 mm. by 108 mm.; 50, second decade, folio 60r, the consul Cornelius Furius consulting two senators, 115 mm. by 105 mm.; 51, second decade, folio 71v, Scipio Africanus attacking Carthage, 68 mm. by 105 mm.; 52, second decade, folio 73v, the consul Marcellus receiving a letter, 100 mm. by 107 mm.; 53, second decade, folio 81r, the death of Marcellus in an ambush led by Hannibal, 67 mm. by 107 mm.; 54, second decade, folio 85v, Claudius Nero defeating Hannibal in battle, 67 mm. by 108 mm.; 55, second decade, folio 89v, the sea battle between Marcus Valerius Laevinus and the Carthaginians, 94 mm. by  108 mm.; 56, second decade, folio 92v, Scipio's victory over Hannibal and the Poeni, 66 mm. by 108 mm.; 57, second decade, folio 102r, Scipio's disembarking in Africa under the walls of Carthage, 122 mm. by 107 mm., 58, second decade, folio 109r, Scipio himself landing on the African coast, 79 mm. by 110 mm.; 59, second decade, folio 112v, Scipio and King Syphax of Numidia meeting in a forest to discuss peace, 109 mm. by 108 mm.; 60, second decade, folio 114v, Syphax, having gone back on his word, being brought as a prisoner before Scipio, 72 mm. by 108 mm.; 61, second decade, folio 121r, Scipio killing Hannibal in battle, 75 mm. by 108 mm.; 62, second decade, folio 123v, Scipio returning to Rome in triumph, led by a trumpeter and watched by citizens from the walls of the city, 72 mm. by 108 mm.; third decade, folio 1r, half-page composition with four miniatures, 199 mm. by 204mm., viz., 63, the Roman declaration of war being delivered to Philip V of Macedon, 64, the armies of the consul Sulpicius setting fire to Macedon (the consul dressed as a king of France), 65, Sulpicius receiving an audience from neighbouring kings, and 66, the battle between the Romans (led a knight dressed as a king of France) and the Macedonians; 67, third decade, folio 10v, the Romans attacking and taking the city of Gaurium, 66 mm. by 108 mm.; 68, third decade, folio 12r, the Roman army approaching that of Philip of Macedon in a mountain valley, 103 mm. by 107 mm.; 69, third decade, folio 16v, the praetor Aristaenus addressing the leaders of the Achaeans, 84 mm. by 107 mm.; 70, third decade, folio 21v, the tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Verlerius arguing in the Senate for the abrogation of the Oppian law, 100 mm. by 107 mm.; 71, third decade, folio 29v, the siege of the city of Lacedaemon by sea and by land, 71 mm. by 108 mm.; 72, third decade, folio 34v, Scipio attacking the city of the Lusitani, 90 mm. by 108 mm.; 73, third decade, folio 46r, Publius Cornelius Scipio and Manius Acilius Glabrio being sworn in as consuls, 96 mm. by 106 mm.; 74, third decade, folio 56r, the ambassadors of the Aetolians riding towards Rome to seek peace, 90 mm. by 107 mm.; 75, third decade, folio 65v, the Romans killing Antiochus in battle and looting his tents, 86 mm. by 107 mm.; 76, third decade, folio 71r, the consul Marcus Fulvius laying siege to the city of Ambracia, 92 mm. by 106 mm.; 77, third decade, folio 72v, the Romans digging a tunnel under the walls of Ambracia, 73 mm. by 109 mm.; 78, third decade, folio 75r, the leaders of Asia kneeling at the gate of Galicia and submitting to the Romans, 75 mm. by 103 mm.; 79, third decade, folio 86r, Scipio Asiaticus in prison after the death of his brother Scipio Africanus, accused of misappropriating public funds, 68 mm. by 112 mm.; 80, third decade, folio 88r, the Romans receiving the keys of the city of Liguria from its leaders, kneeling at the town gate, 90 mm. by 104mm.; 81, third decade, folio 89v, Bacchanalians drinking flasks of wine in honour of Bacchus, whose golden image sits on an altar between two flasks, 73 mm. by 104 mm.; 82, third decade, folio 100r, Philip of Macedon welcoming back his son, who had been sent as a hostage to Rome, 73 mm. by 107 mm.; 83, third decade, folio 102v, the people kneeling before Philip of Macedon, accusing him of cruelty, 94mm. by 105 mm.; 84, third decade, folio 108r, Philip of Macedon poisoning his own son Demetrius, 60 mm. by 110 mm.; 85, third decade, folio 109v, the Romans defeating the Celtiberians in battle, 59 mm. by 105 mm.; third decade, folio 111v, double composition with two miniatures, 123 mm. by 109 mm., viz., 86, Jean de Vy, with his coat-of-arms, kneeling in prayer before the Virgin and Child, and 87, the scribe Jeannin de Rouen writing the present manuscript, and Henri d'Orquevaulx illuminating it.

Western Manuscripts and Miniatures and the Korner sale