16
16
巴布羅 · 畢加索
《鬥牛士》
估價
Irrevocable Bids
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures that the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder or may receive a fixed fee in the event he or she is the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, the fixed fee (if applicable) for providing the irrevocable bid may be netted against the irrevocable bidder’s obligation to pay the full purchase price for the lot and the purchase price reported for the lot shall be net of such fixed fee. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. If the irrevocable bidder is advising anyone with respect to the lot, Sotheby’s requires the irrevocable bidder to disclose his or her financial interest in the lot. If an agent is advising you or bidding on your behalf with respect to a lot identified as being subject to an irrevocable bid, you should request that the agent disclose whether or not he or she has a financial interest in the lot.
Artist's Resale Right
Purchase of lots marked with this symbol will be subject to the payment of the artist's resale right.
Double Dagger
Indicates that the lot is being sold whilst subject to Temporary Importation, and that VAT is due at the reduced rate
Guaranteed Property
Guaranteed Property. The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. If every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
14,000,00018,000,000
拍品已售 16,521,500 英鎊 成交價 (含買家佣金)
前往
16
巴布羅 · 畢加索
《鬥牛士》
估價
Irrevocable Bids
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures that the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder or may receive a fixed fee in the event he or she is the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, the fixed fee (if applicable) for providing the irrevocable bid may be netted against the irrevocable bidder’s obligation to pay the full purchase price for the lot and the purchase price reported for the lot shall be net of such fixed fee. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. If the irrevocable bidder is advising anyone with respect to the lot, Sotheby’s requires the irrevocable bidder to disclose his or her financial interest in the lot. If an agent is advising you or bidding on your behalf with respect to a lot identified as being subject to an irrevocable bid, you should request that the agent disclose whether or not he or she has a financial interest in the lot.
Artist's Resale Right
Purchase of lots marked with this symbol will be subject to the payment of the artist's resale right.
Double Dagger
Indicates that the lot is being sold whilst subject to Temporary Importation, and that VAT is due at the reduced rate
Guaranteed Property
Guaranteed Property. The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. If every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
14,000,00018,000,000
拍品已售 16,521,500 英鎊 成交價 (含買家佣金)
前往

拍品詳情

印象派及現代藝術晚拍

|
倫敦

巴布羅 · 畢加索
1881 - 1973年
《鬥牛士》
款識:畫家紀年23.10.70.(背面)
油彩畫布
146 x 114.3公分
57 1/2 x 45英寸
1970年10月23日作
參閱狀況報告 參閱狀況報告

來源

藝術家身後
克勞德·貝爾納畫廊,巴黎(1980年或之前購入)
企業收藏,美國
現藏家購自上述收藏

出版

皮耶·德卡爾格及愛德華·坎,《畢加索》,巴黎,1974年,第259頁載彩圖(畫名《鬥牛士(Torero)》)

拉斐爾·阿爾韋蒂,《畢加索:連續範圍》,巴黎,1974年,品號11

克里斯蒂安·澤爾沃斯,《巴布羅·畢加索:1970年作品》,巴黎,1977年,第32冊,品號290,圖版101載圖

相關資料

「鬥牛對畢加索來說當然是非常重要。他筆下的公牛和克里特公牛米諾陶洛斯呈現支配與征服、壯觀與悲愴,本質上是競技場內近如宗教儀式般沉重所產生的結果。」

——尼爾·考克斯與德博拉·波維,《畢加索動物寓言集》,倫敦,一九九五年,35頁

這幅油畫繪於一九七〇年十月二十三日,是畢加索在同年九月下旬開始創作的鬥牛士系列作品的最後一幅,也是這個使他一生著迷的主題的巔峰之作。畢加索在一八八九至一八九〇年在馬拉加創作第一幅畫作《黃色小騎馬鬥牛士》,從他背後觀眾的視角描繪競技場內的一名騎馬鬥牛士。畢加索在八歲時被父親帶到鬥牛場,這段經歷無疑在年幼的畢加索心中留下深刻印象。鬥牛後來成為他最重要的題材之一,他在不同創作時期以各種形式反覆創作,從一九〇〇至〇一年以陽光下鬥牛場景為題的油畫及粉彩畫,到超現實主義時期的牛頭怪米諾陶洛斯和《格爾尼卡》的戰爭場面。在一九七〇年的九月至十月,他於弗雷瑞斯看過一場鬥牛後,最後一次重拾其著名的鬥牛士主題。

與他在同一時期其他配以簡潔單色背景的鬥牛士作品(圖3)不同,本作將鬥牛士與競技場結合,獨樹一幟。背景的下半部分代表鬥牛場的沙地,上半部分則代表觀眾。儘管觀眾的形象以快速筆法刻畫,近乎抽象,但此手法不僅令人聯想起畢加索早期對此主題的描寫,還有前人如戈雅與馬奈的早期作品,以標誌性的明暗手法劃分鬥牛場景。「陽光和陰影形成鬥牛場內的兩個座位區域[……]。鬥牛在午後時分上演,炎熱的天氣令人難以忍受,因此那些能買得起靠門座位的觀眾就以陰影標示。鬥牛場較暗的一邊是公牛本身的顏色,而坐在陽光下的人則與鬥牛士身穿色彩斑斕、刺繡繁麗的『光明戰衣』連在一起。」(尼爾·考克斯與德博拉·波維,《畢加索動物寓言集》,倫敦,一九九五年,40頁)

在十九世紀最後幾年,畢加索留在馬德里,臨摹普拉多美術館藏的古典油畫,受到戈雅筆下的鬥牛場景薰陶。一九〇〇年,他在巴黎安布魯瓦茲·沃拉爾畫廊舉行首場展覽期間,展出了數幅新作,主要是粉彩畫和素描。他的鬥牛畫作尤其成功,是第一批售出的作品。之後他返回西班牙,創作了數幅色彩鮮豔的油畫,重現安達盧西亞的燦爛陽光和鬥牛儀式的暴力氣氛。弗雷德里克·普胡拉·伊·瓦萊斯是最早開始評論畢加索藝術的評論家,他如此評論這些作品:「眩目的光線照射著一排排座位,效果不可思議:鬥牛士的輪廓與看台上的觀眾亦然」(引述弗雷德里克·普胡拉·伊·瓦萊斯,約翰·理查森,《畢加索的一生》,倫敦,一九九一年,第一冊,154頁)。

儘管畢加索年輕時離開西班牙到巴黎居住,但他一直保持作為西班牙人的歸屬感,至死不渝。他從小在馬拉加觀看鬥牛,而當他想專注創作其民族歷史時,便想起鬥牛場景。藝術家在本作重拾鬥牛主題,可見當時年邁的畢加索不斷回想自己的幼年時光,並在晚年向古典油畫大師尋求靈感。個人回憶與他的藝術傳統緊密相連,而在這最後一系列的鬥牛士肖像畫中,戈雅的影子格外明顯。畢加索筆下鬥牛士都身穿戈雅時代的衣著(圖4);他們向代表西班牙激情文化的生死之舞——鬥牛,及象徵畢加索身上的安達盧西亞男子氣概——鬥牛士的英雄形象致以最後敬意。

鬥牛是武力、勇氣和能力的象徵,當中那優雅與殘暴、娛樂與悲劇、慾望與死亡、甚至是生與死之間的強烈對比,都令畢加索深深著迷。尼爾·考克斯和德博拉·波維寫道:「鬥牛對畢加索來說當然是非常重要。他筆下的公牛和克里特公牛米諾陶洛斯呈現支配與征服、壯觀與悲愴,本質上是競技場內近如宗教儀式般沉重所產生的結果」(尼爾·考克斯與德博拉·波維,同上,29頁)。然而,畢加索在本畫中用精緻華麗的服飾展示鬥牛士的傳統儀式,同時加入許多早期作品所缺乏的人性情感。鬥牛士瞪大雙眼,貌似畢加索筆下的賈桂琳,展現出脆弱和血肉感,從中反映藝術家自己對生命盡頭的憂慮。

對於年事已高的畢加索來說,鬥牛士是影射自己不同個性的角色之一。在畢加索的晚年作品中,這個主題「經常出現,或者偽裝成工作中的畫家或鬥牛士兼劍客[……]。畢加索直觀人類面相,使他成為二十世紀偉大的肖像畫家;亦引導他面對自己,不論是年輕或老年的時候」(瑪麗-勞爾·貝爾納克,《畢加索晚年作品》(展覽圖錄),泰特畫廊,倫敦,一九八八年,81-83頁)。這些肖像畫以畢加索所遇見的不同人物為原型,是藝術家的個人經歷與西方藝術傳統融合的成果,並形成直接而率性的風格,這正是藝術創作的真諦。

《鬥牛士》是畢加索晚年一系列重要畫作之一,充滿藝術家個人經歷和藝術歷史、體現其自由即興的創作手法。一九七三年,畢加索離世不久後,這幅畫在亞維農的教皇宮展出;這場展覽由賈桂琳籌辦,展示畢加索晚年最後的傑作。本畫筆觸輕快,活力澎湃,見證畢加索晚年的創造力。畢加索在多個時期裡,試驗過不同風格及技巧,對自己的表達能力充滿自信,下筆得心應手,因而得以創作巨幅作品。《鬥牛士》精彩地呈現畢加索爐火純青的藝術技巧,並糅合了畢加索一生中最重要的生命和藝術元素。

印象派及現代藝術晚拍

|
倫敦