Chief Turtle Abraham, was the brother of Chief King Hendrick Theyanoguin (Tee Yee Ho Ga Row) (c. 1691–1755). Chief Hendrick formed a close alliance with Sir William and was one of the "four Indian kings" who visited England and Queen Anne in 1710. Upon his death his brother Turtle Abraham became chief.
Sir William was seen as the facilitator of detente with the Iroquois nations and was a proponent of awarding gifts to Native leaders. He realized that they considered it an important cultural symbol of respect and significant in maintaining good relations. This astonishing horn was presented on May 24, 1763 which remarkably is the same moment that the Pontiac's Rebellion was launched because of the giving of smallpox-infected blankets. This horn’s presentation could be directly linked to the inept leadership of General Jeffery Amherst.
In 1763, Pontiac's War resulted from Native American discontent with British policy following the French and Indian War. For several years prior to the uprising, Johnson had advised General Jeffery Amherst to observe Iroquois diplomatic practices, for instance, awarding gifts to Native leaders, a practice they considered an important cultural symbol of respect and significant to maintaining good relations. Amherst, who rejected Johnson's advice, was recalled to London and replaced by General Thomas Gage.
This horn stands as a historical icon of mid-eighteenth century British and Native American affairs.
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