The Bodmer Virgil, in Latin, illuminated manuscript on vellum
1 000 0001 500 000
Лот продан 1,688,000 GBP (Цена продажи с учетом процента покупателя)
The Bodmer Virgil, in Latin, illuminated manuscript on vellum
1 000 0001 500 000
Лот продан 1,688,000 GBP (Цена продажи с учетом процента покупателя)

Details & Cataloguing

The Bodmer Virgil, in Latin, illuminated manuscript on vellum

244 leaves (last blank), 259mm. by 165mm., complete, collation: i-vi8, vii10, viii-xxx8, xxxi2, with vertical catchwords, 28 lines, ruled in very pale red ink, written-space 173mm. by 87mm., written in dark brown ink in a very fine upright rounded humanistic minuscule, colophon in red, headings in dark red capitals, opening lines of each text or book in burnished gold script, a 3-line initial in burnished gold on fol.101r, blank spaces left for thirteen further 2-line initials never supplied, six large illuminated initials (mostly 4-line) in highly burnished gold on panels of red and/or blue and/or green with delicate tracery in white or yellow, fourteen large white-vine initials in highly burnished gold entwined and filled with elaborate leafy vinestems shaded in yellow and infilled in the interstices with carmine, green and blue, heightened with clusters of 3 tiny dots in white or yellow, sometimes with marginal extensions ending in gold bezants and leaves with radiating penwork, the white-vine initials from 4 to 9 lines high, mostly 9-line, blank spaces left for other large initials never supplied on fols.26v, 36v, 47r, 87v, 115r, 147v, 176v, 208v and 225v, twelve very large miniatures over half-page in size (fols. 1r, 17r, 59r, 73r, 88r, 101v, 114v, 131r, 148r, 163r, 177r and 192r) with full or three-quarter white-vine illuminated borders often including putti, birds, animals, flowers, etc., two further very large unfinished miniatures (fols.209r and 226r), original coats-of-arms carefully erased and overpainted (see below), occasional negligible spots of wear, a single marginal wormhole in last few leaves, fols.20 and 241 with vertical creases, a few pages (such as fol.22) slightly rubbed, generally in magnificent bright fresh condition throughout with clean wide margins often preserving the prickings, very fine late sixteenth-century Roman red morocco profusely gilt by the Farnese Bindery over thin wooden bevelled on their inner edges and sewn on 4 bands, sides panelled, central devices with the arms of Cardinal Bonelli within a strapwork cartouche and between strapwork corner-pieces and elaborate volutes and fleurs-de-lys, the borders decorated with elaborate repeated  interlaced patterns of stylised leaves and flowers, spine in compartments similar in profuse gilt, vellum endleaves, edges gilt and gauffered and inscribed along fore-edge in red lapidary capitals “VIRGILIUS”, 2 clasps and catches (straps perhaps replaced), extreme edges of binding slightly rubbed,  upper end of lower joint slightly cracked and repaired, the binding generally in superb condition

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Probably the finest renaissance manuscript of any classical text in private hands, and one of the finest manuscripts of Virgil ever made



(1) Probably illuminated for Alessandro Sforza (1409-1473), lord of Pesaro, renaissance prince and art patron, younger brother of Francesco Sforza (1401-1466), first Sforza duke of Milan.   The scribe was working in Pesaro (see below), and the same artist also illuminated a Psalter probably also for the Sforza rulers of Pesaro (see below).  The original coats-of-arms have been carefully scraped away and overpainted in white.   The arms on fol.1r are, however, within an original border of interlinked diamond rings.   This was a specifically Sforza device, given to Alessandro’s father by Niccolò d’Este in 1409 after winning a important victory for the Este family, long before it was adopted by the Medici (F. Ames-Lewis, The Library and Manuscripts of Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, 1984, pp.63-70; E. Pellegrin, La bibliothèque des Visconti et des Sforza, 1955, p.490).   The arms in the border of that page in the upper right and lower left can be partially seen from the reverse.  They were quarterly, 1 and 4 with the Sforza onde (alternating wave-like shield shapes argent and azure), 2 and 3 with some device on a red ground, consistent with the Sforza gules, a scopetta (a little brush), argent and or.  The device at the foot of the page, once within the linked diamond rings, has been scraped before being painted over, but enough remains to see fairly clearly the diamond ring at the upper left and the sweep of a jagged tail on the right.  This was certainly the Sforza human-headed dragon holding aloft a diamond ring in its front claws.


Alessandro Sforza owed his rise to fortune to the success of his elder brother, duke of Milan, who made him governor of Ancona in 1431 and lord of Pesaro, c.1442.  He supported Francesco Sforza in the wars in Lombardy in 1448 and was later in the service of the kings of Naples and Pope Paul II.   He died in Ferrara.   He was a notable art patron and his commissions included the so-called ‘Sforza Triptych’ from the circle of Rogier van der Weyden, now in the Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, in which he is shown kneeling before his armorial devices.   He also built the ducal palace in Pesaro, still standing.   In 1449 he married Seraphia Montefeltro (d.1478), who was beatified in 1754 as the Blessed Seraphia Sforza.


(2) Cardinal Michele Bonelli (1541-1598), nephew and secretary of Pope Pius V, who was also canonised.   He was created a cardinal in 1566 and served his uncle as papal legate to Portugal, Spain and France.   Three other very similar bindings also executed for him, two covering printed books and one a manuscript, are described in G.D. Hobson, Maioli, Canevari and Others, 1926, p.126, nos.10-12, identified as being by the Farnese bindery in A.R.A. Hobson, French and Italian Collectors and their Bindings, 1953, p.144.


(3) The Rev. Theodore Williams (1785-1875), with his gilt ex-libris stamped inside both covers; his sale, Evans, 5 April 1827, lot 1802, sold for the then huge price of £71.8s.


(4) Sir Thomas Phillipps (1792-1872), his MS.3506, bought at the Williams sale in person; no.10 on Fitzroy Fenwick’s reserve list of the 15 greatest manuscripts in the Phillipps library; when the collection was finally bought by the Robinson brothers in 1946, this was one of the books selected for immediate sale in these rooms, 1 July 1946, lot 22, to Maggs, for Bodmer.


(5) Dr Martin Bodmer (1899-1971), formerly on deposit as Cod. Bodmer 185 at the Fondation Bodmer, Cologny-Genève; and now the property of his descendants.



P. Durrieu, ‘Les manuscrits à peintures de la Bibliothèque de Sir Thomas Phillipps à Cheltenham’, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, L, 1889, p.420, no.CXIV.


B. Quaritch, Contributions towards a Dictionary of English Book-Collectors, VI, 1895 (reprinted, 1969, p.310).


M. Bodmer, Eine Bibliothek der Weltliteratur, 1947, p.52, and col.pl. after p.16.


A.N.L. Munby, Phillipps Studies, III, 1954, p.54, and V, 1960, p.106.


Bénédictins du Bouveret, Colophons de manuscrits occidentaux des origins au XVIe siècle, III, 1973, p.44, no.7774.


E. Pellegrin, Manuscrits latins de la Bodmeriana, 1982, pp.442-45, and pls.31-32.


B.M. von Scarpatetti, Catalogue des manuscrits datés en Suisse en écriture latine du début du Moyen Âge jusqu’en 1550, II, p.126, and pl.397.


A. Derolez, Codicologie des manuscrits en écriture humanistique sur parchemin, II, Catalogue (Bibliologia 6), 1984, p.37, no.85.


P.O. Kristeller, Iter Italicum, Accedunt Alia Itinera, V, 1990, p.103.


C. de Hamel, ‘Chester Beatty and the Phillipps Manuscripts’, The Book Collector, XL, 1991, p.368 (re-printed in The Pleasures of Bibliophily, Fifty Years of the Book Collector, An Anthology, 2003, p.246).


S. Maddalo, ‘Da glosa a commento: Ornamento e illustrazione degli antichi nel tardo medioevo’, Vedere i Classici, ed. M. Buonocore, 1996, p.79.


Virgilio, Enciclopedia Virgiliana, III, 1996, p.434, no.124.

Описание в каталоге


This is one of the absolute finest of all extant manuscripts of the national epic of ancient Rome, and one of perhaps three or four supreme manuscripts of Virgil’s complete works surviving from the Italian renaissance.  The Aeneid is generally accepted as the greatest text of Latin literature.  Although it is known in many hundreds of medieval copies, from the two fourth-century codices in the Vatican to the first printed edition of c.1469, most are simple texts, often for school use, and illustrated manuscripts of Virgil’s works are almost unknown (see  below).  Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 B.C.) was the court poet of Augustus.  The Aeneid was intended to celebrate the divine origins of the Roman empire.  The author’s fame survived into the early Christian period as a kind of holy oracle and magician.  Saint Paul was said to have wept over Virgil’s tomb in Naples.  His direct influence is found in almost every work of western literature for one and a half millennia.   The present manuscript comprises his complete works, the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the twelve books of the Aeneid.   It opens without heading on fol.1r, “Tytire tu patule recubans sub tegmine fagi …”,  Eclogue I, followed by Eclogues II (fol.2v), III (fol.4r), IV (fol.6r), V (fol.7r), VI (fol.9r), VII (fol.10v), VIII (fol.11v), IX (fol.13v) and X (fol.15r), ending on fol.16r, “… ite Capellae, Publii Virgilii Maronis poetae clarissimi bucolicorum eggloga ultima explicit”.  The Georgics open with the short preface ascribed to Ovid (Anthologia Latina no.2), “Publii Virgilii Maronis poetae clarissimi Georgicorum liber primus incipit (fol.16v), Quid faciat letas …”, with Book I of the Georgics on fol.17r, “Quid faciat letas …”, followed by Books II (fol.26v), III (fol.36v) and IV (fol.46v), ending on fol.57r, “… sub tegmine fagi, Publii Virgilii Maronis poetae Georgicorum liber IIII explicit”.   The Aeneid begins on fol.58v with the preface of Ovid (Anthologia Latina no.634), “[P]rimus habet Libicam veniant …” (A. Riese, ed., Anthologia Latina, I, ii, 1906, pp.100-101) and on fol.59r with the prologue probably by Virgil himself, “Publii Vergilii Maronis poetae Aeneidorum liber primus incipit, Ille ego qui quondam …” (cf. R.G. Austin in Classical Quarterly, n.s., XVIII, 1968, p.107), followed by Book I, “Arma virumque cano …” (fol.59r), and Books II (73r, with the Pseudo-Ovid preface, Anthologia Latina no.1, “Conticuere omnes …”), III (fol.87v), IV (fol.101r), V (fol.114v), VI (fol.131r), VII (fol.147v), VIII (fol.163r), IX (fol.176v), X (fol.192r), XI (fol.208v) and XII (fol.226r, with the Pseudo-Ovid preface, “Duodecimo turnus divinis …” (fol.225v), all ending on fol.243r, “… Vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbra, Publii Virgilii Maronis poetae Aeneidorum liber XII et ultimus explicit”.


scribe and artist

The manuscript is signed and dated on fol.243r, “Ego Iacobus Guidonis de Verona finivi hunc librum Die xxiiii Novembris 1459”, that is, the book was completed by Jacopo di Guido, of Verona, on 24 November 1459.   He clearly intends this to mean that he was the scribe.   Apart from anything else, the illumination is not finished and so the colophon must refer to the script alone.  The same scribe signed three other manuscripts, (a) a Psalter, Vatican, Barberini cod. Lat.482, dated 16 May 1459 (G. Morello and S. Maddalo, Liturgia in figura, Codici liturgici rinascimentali della Biblioteca Vaticana, 1995, pp.141-44, no.20, figs.52-5); (b) a Petrarch, Vienna ÖNB. cod. 2649, dated June 1459 (O. Mazal, Prinz Eugens schönste Bücher, 1986, figs.8-9); and (c) a second almost identical Petrarch, Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, cod. Ob.26, dated April 1460 (R. Bruck, Die Malereien in den Handschriften des Königreichs Sachsen, 1906, fig.201).  The Psalter was written in Pesaro almost certainly for Alessandro Sforza (G. Castiglioni, ‘Un secolo di miniature Veronese, 1450-1550’, Miniatura Veronese del Rinascimento, ed., G. Castiglioni and S. Marinelli, 1986, pp.59-62, and Morello and Maddalo, p.144).   The Petrarch in Dresden is also dated from Pesaro.  It was once thought to have been made for Borso d’Este, but was perhaps actually intended for a member of the Erizzo family of Venice (A. Murano, ‘I Trionfi di Francesco Petrarca: un manoscritto poco noto della Biblioteca Estense di Modena’, Rivista di Storia della Miniatura, V, 2000, p.33, n.3).  The original patron of the Petrarch in Vienna is not known.


Furthermore, all four manuscripts signed by Jacopo di Guido of Verona are illuminated by the same artist.  It may be that British Library Add. MS.22108, an imperfect Livy, is by the same illuminator too.   It has been generally assumed that Jacopo was the artist of the three signed books in the Vatican, Vienna and Dresden, and indeed an illuminator Jacopo da Verona is recorded in Pesaro and elsewhere in 1473, 1484 and died in 1492 (A. Mazzi, ‘Gli estimi e le anagrafi inediti di miniatori e scrittori Veronesi del secolo XV’, Madonna Verona, VI, 1912, pp. 85 and 91; Thieme-Becker, XVIII, p.289; P. D’Ancona and E. Aeschlimann, Dictionnaire des miniaturistes, 1949, pp.115-6, cautiously; and, especially, Castiglioni, ‘Secolo di miniature’, p.59).  It has to remain an open question.   Jacopo in the present manuscript states that he had finished, which the artist certainly had not, but the remarkable coincidence of consistent collaboration between Jacopo and the Master of the Bodmer Virgil cannot allow us to exclude the possibility that they were the same man.


According to a pencil note by Phillipps, cited by Pellegrin, p.443, with no alternative attribution, the present book was probably illuminated either by Liberale da Verona or by Girolamo da Libri.  This is untenable, but it is an acknowledgement of the quality of the illustrations.  There are beautiful rich colours and pale fluffy skies, stratified landscapes forming into cones (like Mantegna), and clumps of flowers and plants with every leaf picked out in three dimensions.   It is a wonderfully narrative style.  The strongest influences are from Lombardy, especially from illuminators like the Hippolyta Master, court illuminator to the Sforzas, and from others in that circle, perhaps including Belbello da Pavia.


Illustrated Virgils are extraordinarily rare.   Between the fourth century and about 1500, fewer than about 20 manuscripts of Virgil include cycles of illustrations of any kind, including manuscripts of translations and romances based on the Aeneid (cf. P.P. Courcelle, Lecteurs païens et lecteurs chrétiens de l’Énéide, II, Les manuscrits illustrés de l’Énéide du Xe au XVe siècle, Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, n.s., IV, 1984).  There are a few others with frontispieces or isolated illustrations.   “Though Virgil was read throughout the Middle Ages, it seems that there was no continuous tradition of illustration and the Renaissance illuminators had to create their own cycles of illustrations afresh” (J.J.G. Alexander, Italian Renaissance Illuminations, 1977, p.40).   Some manuscripts had historiated initials only, including the two examples recently on the market: the Feltrinelli Virgil, dated 1417, and the Longleat Virgil, c.1465 (Christie’s, 3 December 1997, lot 224, £700,000, and 13 June 2002, lot 4, £1,200,000 respectively).  Italian renaissance manuscripts of Virgil with separate free-standing illustrations, as in the present book, are limited to about half a dozen recorded examples.   In approximate order of date, they are: (a) Vatican, cod. Urb.Lat. 642, second quarter of the fifteenth century; (b) Florence, Bibl. Riccardiana, cod. 492, probably 1450s; (c) Paris, BnF, ms. lat.7939A, dated 1458; (d) the present manuscript, dated 1459; (d) Vatican, cod. Vat.Lat. 1579, dated 1465; (e) Valencia, Bibl. Universitaria, cod. 748, c.1480; and (f) London, BL, King’s MS.24, by Sanvito, c.1490.   Probably the present artist had no illustrated exemplar before him.  Most late medieval art is formed from copies or adaptations of received images or traditional iconography.  It is exceedingly rare and utterly fascinating to glimpse any artist at the moment of creative invention.


Virgil died without entirely completing the Aeneid and he is said to have asked on his deathbed for the text to be destroyed.  The present manuscript is also unfinished.   Many initials are left blank.  Eleven miniatures are entirely completed.   The twelfth is fully coloured but lacks its final heightening and crisping up.  The last two are sketches, floating emptily in space, showing the artist designing and moving his images into shape.   They are drawn lightly in plummet, with the first few tentative lines only of ink.  A picture would usually be worked up entirely in ink before colouring, because ink becomes invisible through tempera whereas a detailed drawing in plummet would leave visible granules.   It is hard to conceive of a more graphic symbol of artistic creation, as the illuminator here struggles slowly with adapting the greatest classical text into pictures for the Christian court of a renaissance prince.


The miniatures are:


1. Folio 1r, The Eclogues, half-page miniature with gently arched top, 118mm. by 92mm., two rustics, one seated below a group of trees playing a pipe, the other leading a goat, two cattle grazing beside a stream, ducks and moorhens in the water, a pelican on the near bank, set in a verdant landscape among lush plants and fruit, a road with people walking from a distant medieval Italian city set in the ocean (perhaps Venice), with a covered bridge, ships, barges, etc.; all within a full white-vine border including putti climbing to reach a duck, stepping into water, sliding down the initial, leading a leopard, riding a deer, etc., together with birds, a dog barking at a cat, and 4 over-painted coats-of-arms, with 4 cherubim supporting a wreath entwined with diamond rings around an over-painted armorial device.


2. Folio 17r, The Georgics, half-page miniature with gently arched top, 110mm. by 92mm., the poet Virgil seated on a bank below a tree with a book on his lap, pointing towards a grey-bearded farmer ploughing a field with two yoked oxen, the farmer’s refreshments waiting on the right, in the fields beyond a man pruning fruit trees and another digging the soil, set in a pastoral landscape with vegetables growing in neat rows, paths, trees and a distant castle; all within a full white-vine border including putti with a bunch of grapes, shooting a duck with a cross-bow and supporting a wreath around an over-painted coat-of-arms.


3. Folio 59r, The Aeneid, Book I, half-page miniature with gently arched top, 106mm. by 92mm.   Troy is on fire in the background, with an army of Greek soldiers entering the burning city through the breach in the walls made to admit the wooden horse.   In the foreground Aeneas in armour steps into exile along a rocky path carrying his grey-haired father Anchises on his shoulders and leading his son Ascanius by the hand.   The boy is loosely wrapped in his father’s purple cloak.   Aeneas has not yet realised that his wife, Creüsa, has been lost in the conflagration.  They are escaping initially to the mountain slopes and forests of Ida.  Eventually they will arrive in Carthage on the coast of Lybia.  


The full white-vine border includes putti fighting and holding birds and playing musical instruments, together with a peacock, a swan and other birds and an over-painted coat-of-arms suspended from a segment of a classical pillar surmounted by leaves and flowers.


4. Folio 73r, The Aeneid, Book II, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 106mm. by 90mm.  It may be that the images for Books I and II are reversed, for the picture here is more appropriate for Book I.  The scene is set in Dido’s newly-built palace, constructed (like that of Alessandro Sforza in Pesaro) in Italian renaissance style, with ornamental battlements and a tiled roof.   Dido is seated beside Aeneas on a red bed below a canopy, holding his hand and begging him to tell her the story of the fall of Troy.  Aeneas himself points to his companions who have shared his exile, and the women of the court sit weeping at Aeneas’s narration of the sad tale.   An old man, perhaps King Iarbus, Dido’s current suitor, leans down from a balcony to listen.   Two of the Trojan’s ships are tied up in the distant harbour.   In the meantime, Achates, servant of Aeneas, is entering the hall with a young man whom he believes to be Ascanius, now wearing the purple robe he had been carrying in the previous picture.  However, Venus has put the real Ascanius to sleep and has disguised Cupid to take his form, and thus Love enters the palace and heart of Dido.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, with a pillar on the fourth side wrapped with purple scrolls and sprouting leaves.   Two putti support a wreath around an over-painted coat-of-arms.


5. Folio 88r, The Aeneid, Book III, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 83mm. by 91mm.  Aeneas has been telling Dido of their voyage.   The Trojans have built themselves ships from the trees of Ida.   They are entering the boats, unfurling the sails and pulling up the anchors.   In the distance Troy is still burning.   On the right is a cave, perhaps that of the Cyclops, whom they will encounter in Sicily.  The man in blue, balancing on the prow of the foremost ship, may be Palinurus, who is later lost overboard in a storm.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, with a pillar on the fourth side wrapped with leaves.  Two hermaphrodites with bunches of pears support a wreath around an over-painted coat-of-arms.


6. Folio 101v, The Aeneid, Book IV, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 93mm. by 87mm.  We are back in the palace in Carthage.  Dido has fallen desperately in love, and she is standing in her bedroom confessing her misery to her sister Anna, placing her hand on her heart.   Anna’s advice is to follow her inclination and marry him.  In the meantime Aeneas sits in the window of an adjacent tower, gazing upwards and despairing of fate which requires him to follow his destiny in Italy.   His companions are crowding around the door of Aeneas’s apartments, strengthening his resolve. 


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a crested bird and two fighting putti.


7. Folio 114v, The Aeneid, Book V, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 100mm. by 87mm.   The Trojans set sail before dawn from Carthage towards Sicily.  Three boats are bobbing in the sea off the wooded African coast.  Aeneas looks back and sees to his despair that Dido is standing on the funeral pyre she has built for herself and amid its flames she is falling on her own sword.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a spotted bird and a putto being frightened by a peacock.


8. Folio 131r, The Aeneid, Book VI, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 97mm. by 87mm.   The Trojans have landed at Cumae on the shores of Italy.   Accompanied by the Cumaean Sibyl, with wild hair and a long pink dress, Aeneas descends through the cave of Avernus into the Underworld.   He is holding the golden bough from the forest of Avernus which with the help of two divine doves he has plucked as a present for Proserpine, queen of Pluto.   The aged Charon is paddling his boat across the black river Styx.  On the far shore are the souls of those who have not been buried and are therefore unable to cross.   Although the purpose of Aeneas in entering the Underworld is to consult his father, who has now died, about his destiny and that of Rome, the scene here is entirely taken from the imagery of medieval hell scenes.  Devils are carrying souls off, boiling them in oil, burning them in fires, pouring molten lead into their mouths, and drowning them in a black lake.  Two, perhaps Anchises and Dido, hold out their arms to Aeneas.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a putto playing a lute to two admiring birds.


9. Folio 148r, The Aeneid, Book VII, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 88mm. by 85mm.   The exiles have arrived beside the banks of the Tiber.  The road is lined with flowers, for this is at last the land which the gods have promised to them.  Ascanius on foot leads a party of Trojans on horseback upstream towards the city of Latium, where they will meet the good but ill-advised King Latinus and his daughter Lavinia.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a putto creeping up on a reluctant dog.


10. Folio 163r, The Aeneid, Book VIII, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 95mm. by 87mm.   Aeneas and his new ally Evander, king of Arcadia, ride through the countryside discussing the origin of various Roman sites and names.  However, the heralds of Turnus, who is betrothed to Lavinia, stand on the city walls of Latium blowing trumpets and declaring war to expel the invaders.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a bird and a putto riding the dragon which appears in the Sforza arms.


11. Folio 177r, The Aeneid, Book IX, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 93mm. by 87mm.   While Aeneas is away with Evander, the armies of Turnus are besieging the castle where the Trojans are encamped.  This is the fortified town on the left here, with soldiers on its ramparts throwing spears and stones down onto the hostile army gathering beneath its walls.   In the meantime, however, Nisus and Euryalus have escaped and have summoned Aeneas who is riding back around the hill here with Pallas, son of Evander, and Tarchon, the Etrurian general.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including two birds and a putto giving an apple to a suspicious deer.


12. Folio 192r, The Aeneid, Book X, half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, partly unfinished, 93mm. by 85mm.   Aeneas himself has now rejoined his hard-pressed companions and has raised the siege.  Here the armies of Turnus and the Trojans meet in a mighty battle and Turnus on a white horse raises his battle-axe and kills Pallas, who tumbles backwards from his horse.  Only through the divine intervention of Juno is Turnus spirited away from the battle and saved from being killed in revenge by Aeneas.


There is a three-quarter white-vine border, including a bird and a putto fighting an eagle.


13. Folio 209r, The Aeneid, Book XI, unfinished half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 100mm. by 84mm.   The illustration survives only as a shadowy sketch in plummet, with a few deft lines in ink.  Aeneas and his companions are mourning the death of Pallas.  Aeneas has set up an altar over the prince’s tomb, with a statue on a pillar, and he has hung the armour of Mazentius on a tree, together with a cloak he had been given by Dido.


 The three-quarter white-vine border is mostly finished in the left-hand margin but appears only as burnished gold bezants and dabs of green in the upper and lower margins.


14. Folio 226r, The Aeneid, Book XII, unfinished half-page miniature in a rectangular compartment, 100mm. by 87mm.   The remaining plummet sketch in plummet, with a few lines in ink, shows the final battle between Aeneas and Turnus.  The Trojans are on the left.   Their camp is on the right.  Aeneas on horseback lances Turnus, who falls backwards and dies.   Thus, at last, Aeneas can marry Lavinia, and he becomes king of Latium and thus ancestor of the Latin founders of Rome.


As above, the three-quarter white-vine border is mostly finished in the left-hand margin but appears only as disjointed burnished gold bezants and dabs of green in the upper and lower margins.

Western Manuscripts