The particularly expressive treatment of the stone is consistent with Buddhist stone sculptures produced during the Sui and early Tang periods. Compare an earlier fragmentary relief head of a seated monk, believed to have come from the Northern Xiangtangshan Caves, formerly in the Yamaguchi Collection, now in the Osaka Municipal Museum of Art, included in the exhibition Chinese Buddhist Stone Sculpture. Veneration of the Sublime, Osaka Municipal Museum of Art, Osaka, 1995, cat. no. 44. A related Tang dynasty head of a monk, in the National Museum, Stockholm, is illustrated in Osvald Sirén, Kinesiska och Japanska Skulpturer och Malningar, Nationalmuseum, [Chinese and Japanese Paintings in the National Museum of Stockholm], Malmo, 1931, pl. 26.