The auricular style (Dutch: Kwabstijl) is a style of ornamental decoration, mainly found in Northern Europe in the first half of the 17th century, bridging Northern Mannerism and the Baroque. The style was especially important and effective in silver, but was also used in minor architectural ornamentation such as door and window reveals and a wide variety of the decorative arts. It uses softly flowing abstract shapes in relief, sometimes asymmetrical, whose resemblance to the side view of the human ear gives it its name is and is often associated with stylized marine animal forms, or ambiguous masks and shapes that seem to emerge from the rippling, fluid background. Although precedents have been traced in the graphic designs of Italian Mannerist artists such as Giulio Romano and Enea Vico, the auricular style can first be found in 1598 in the important ornament book of Northern Mannerism, Architectura: Von Außtheilung, Symmetria und Proportion der Fünff Seulen ..., by Wendel Dietterlin of Stuttgart, in the second edition of 1598. It can be found in the designs of Hans Vredeman de Vries in the Netherlands, and was used most effectively in the hands of the Utrecht silversmiths Paul and Adam van Vianen, and Paul's pupil Johannes Lutma, who settled in Amsterdam.