The move of the Northern Wei capital to Luoyang in AD 494 gave rise to the construction of the Buddhist grottoes of Longmen near Luoyang in Henan province, which together with Dunhuang and Yungang can be considered the greatest Chinese cave temples. Construction of the whole temple complex, which is said to contain some 100,000 sculptures in 1,400 caves, continued from around AD 494 in seven stages through the Northern Wei (386-534) into the Northern Qi period (550-577), with a revival, after a quieter interval, under the Tang Emperor Gaozong (r. 650-683), with the main constructions being undertaken during the 6th and 7th and until the mid-8th century.
Several related Bodhisattva heads have been attributed to Longmen in Longmen liusan diaoxiang ji / Lost Statues of Longmen Cave, Shanghai, 1993, pl. 63, in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London; pl. 71, in a private collection; pl. 72, in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; pl. 73, in a Japanese private collection; and pl. 75, a standing Bodhisattva in the Shanghai Museum with a similar head; another Longmen head in the Miho Museum is illustrated in Longmen shiku/Longmen Caves, n.p., 2001, pl. 46.
From this highly important cave complex the style spread also to other regions. An over lifesize sculpture of Avalokitesvara from Shaanxi province in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, dated in accordance with AD 706, with a head probably of similar size as the present one, is illustrated in Saburō Matsubara, Chūgoku Bukkyō chōkuku shiron/The Path of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture, Tokyo, 1995, vol. III, pl. 648. A standing Bodhisattva with related hair style from the Grenville Winthrop collection and a head in the Cleveland Museum of Art, both also attributed to Shaanxi province, are illustrated in Osvald Sirén, Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century (London, 1925), Bangkok, 1998, vol. II, pls 372 B and 376 C; and a seated Guanyin figure with similar head in the Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, attributed to the first half of the 8th century, is published in Matsubara, op. cit., pl. 691. A related head from the collection of H. Hardt was included in the Ausstellung chinesischer Kunst, Preußische Akademie der Künste, Berlin, 1929, cat. no. 298; and another was sold in our London rooms, 13th/14th November 1972, lot 255.
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