Private Collection, Paris
Private Collection, Switzerland
Galerie Beyeler, Basel
Collection Daniel Malingue, Paris
Acquired directly from the above by the present owner
Kassel, Museum Fridericianum, Documenta II, Kunst nach 1945, 1959, p. 380, no. 18, illustrated
Hanover, Kestner-Gesellschaft Hannover; and Hamburg, Kunstverein Hamburg, Nicolas de Staël, 1959-60, n.p., no. 32
Turin, Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna, Pittori d’oggi Francia-Italia, 1961, n.p., no. 240
Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, Dix Ans d’Art Vivant 1945-55, 1966, n.p, no. 139
Geneva, Galerie Motte, Nicolas de Staël: 1914-1955, Peintures et Dessins, 1967, n.p., no. 19
Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, Staël, 1972, p. 92, no. 45, illustrated
Zurich, Galerie Nathan, Nicolas de Staël: Gemälde und Zeichnungen, 1976-77, n.p., no. 12, illustrated
Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais; and London, Tate Gallery, Nicolas de Staël: Rétrospective, 1981, p. 78, no. 58, illustrated
Geneva, Galerie Daniel Malingue, Staël: Priorité Peinture, 1992, n.p., no. 8, illustrated in colour
Paris, Galerie Daniel Malingue, Hommage à Nicolas de Staël, 1992
Tokyo, Tobu Museum of Art; Kamakura, Museum of Modern Art; and Hiroshima, Museum of Art, Nicolas de Staël: 1944-1955, 1993, p. 69, no. 18, illustrated in colour
Paris, Galerie Daniel Malingue, Maîtres Impressionistes et Modernes, 1994, n.p., no. 20, illustrated in colour
Frankfurt, Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Nicolas de Staël: Retrospektive, 1994, p. 85, no. 52, illustrated in colour
Martigny, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Nicolas de Staël, 1995, p. 69, no. 18, illustrated in colour
Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Nicolas de Staël, 2003, p. 138, no. 110, illustrated in colour
Linz, Kentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Paris 1945-1965: Metropole der Kunst, Jahrzehnte des Aufbruchs, Malerei – Plastik – Grafik – Fotografie, 2003-04, p. 267, illustrated in colour
Barcelona, Fundación Caixa Catalunya, Nicolas de Staël : 1914-1955, 2007, p. 87, illustrated in colour
Jacques Dubourg and Françoise de Staël, Ed., Nicolas de Staël: Lettres, Catalogue Raisonné des Peintures, Paris 1968, p. 197, no. 396, illustrated
André Chastel, Staël: l'artiste et l'oeuvre, Paris 1972, p. 92, no. 45, illustrated
Agnès Cazenave, ‘Nicolas de Staël’, La Vie, 19 June 1981, pp. 48-49, illustrated in colour
René Micha, ‘Trois Maîtres: Dufy et de Staël à Paris; Kokoschka à Londres’, Art International, Lugano, No. 9-10, August 1981, p. 158, illustrated in colour
Michael Brenson, ‘Report from Paris, de Staël in Retrospect’, Art in America, Vol. 69, No. 10, December 1981, p. 39, illustrated in colour
Wolfgang Sauré, ‘Pariser Kunstereignisse Paris – Paris 1937-1957; Nicolas de Staël’, Das Kunstwerk, Stuttgart, Vol. 34, No. 5, 1981, p. 73, illustrated
Françoise de Staël, Ed., Nicolas de Staël: Catalogue Raisonné de l’Oeuvre Peint, Neuchâtel 1997, p. 342, no. 400, illustrated in colour
In the years leading up to the decisive 1952 football match, de Staël had become increasingly frustrated by the apparent gulf between abstraction and figuration in his work. Firmly entrenched in the strand of Modernism that sought to readdress the past in order to move forward from it, de Staël came to realise that it was only by surrendering traditional subject matter to the Modernist dictum of painting-as-painting, (painting which is primarily a play of forms and colours on a flat canvas) that his work could continue to be both current and alive. The little tiles of colour that characterised the artist’s work in 1951 slowly evolved bit by bit into figurative suggestions and still lifes to evince a spontaneous marriage with the exterior world. Representations of wine bottles and apples organically took their place in this formal trajectory and his work thus became more complex and contradictory. As the artist explained, “I am not setting abstract painting against figurative painting. A painting should be both abstract and figurative. Abstract to the extent that it is a flat surface, figurative to the extent that it is a representation of space” (Nicolas de Staël quoted in: Julien Alvard and Roger van Gindertaël, Témoignages pour l’art abstrait, Paris 1952, n.p.). The event that was to provide the catalyst for this monumental change in artistic direction was the most casual of occurrences: a football match.
Although writing to his dear friend, the poet René Char, many days after the game, de Staël’s enthusiasm for the event had not faded: “My dear René, Thank you for your note, you are an angel, just like the boys who play in the Parc des Princes each evening… I think of you often. When you come back we will go and watch some matches together. They are marvellous. No one there is playing to win, except in rare moments of nervousness which cut you to the quick. On the red or blue field, between earth and sky, a ton of muscle flies in abandon, forgetting itself entirely in the paradoxical concentration that this requires. What joy René, what joy! Anyway I’ve put the whole French and Swedish teams to work, and a bit of progress starts to be made. If I were to find a space as big as the Rue Gauget, I would set off on two hundred small canvases so that their colour could blare like the posters on the motorway out of Paris… Yours, Nicola (Nicolas de Staël, ‘Letter to René Char, 10 April 1952’, cited in: Françoise de Staël, Ed., Nicolas de Staël: Catalogue Raisonné de l’Oeuvre Peint, Neuchâtel 1997, p. 975). The tumultuous flurry of colour and movement recalled in this famous letter resonated profoundly with the artist. Indeed, critic Denys Sutton goes as far as to say that the football match had the same effect on de Staël “as the Circus had on Lautrec and Degas” (Denys Sutton, ‘Nicolas de Staël’, 1956, in: Exhibition Catalogue, Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, (and travelling), Nicolas de Staël, 1981, p. 14).
Just as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec’s visits to the Cirque Fernando in the late 1880s inspired a colourful, chaotic world, de Staël’s excursion to Parc des Princes prompted a group of works that exploded with an infectious energy, vitality and colour. Like no other series before, de Staël flattened the pictorial space so that figures were treated as an injection of vibrantly coloured, animated touches, pitted against the flat ground. As such, unbridled movement was played against absolute stillness, dazzling whites, reds, blues and purples against the darkest night. As the extreme forces of stasis threaten to engulf the great blocks of colour the painting acquires all the overwhelming passion and fatalism experienced in Greek tragedy. As Douglas Cooper points out “this series of footballers is more ambitious and vital than anything de Staël has achieved before. What’s more they reveal his innate gift as a striking and effective colourist, being executed in a series of strong reds and blues, from light to dark, blended with black and white” (Douglas Cooper, Nicolas de Staël, London 1961, p. 51).
The fertility of 1952 came to leave an indelible mark on all de Staël’s future works. Thereon after, until his tragic and untimely death in 1955, he rejected pure abstraction in favour of paintings that depicted musical performers, still lifes and landscapes amongst other subjects, which emerged from lyrical, semi-abstracted patterns. De Staël's magisterial capacity to espouse abstraction and figuration into a wholly innovative communion bespeaks the mystery of the medium that was to influence the masters of the later 1950s and beyond such as Frank Auerbach. Akin to Auerbach, de Staël’s readiness to allow the paint to announce its plastic qualities whilst also endowing it with a figurative function aligns his practice with the painterly struggle between figuration and abstraction that is prevalent in the works of post-modernist painters such as Gerhard Richter. Perfectly dramatising de Staël’s late and ambiguous approach to both figuration and abstraction, Footballeurs is the ultimate encapsulation of the artist’s aesthetic aims. In this series de Staël finally reached the plateau to which he had been ceaselessly striving.
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