An embroidered silk casket, English third quarter 17th century
- silk, wood, metal, metal-thread, seed pearls, golden paint
There was a great demand for rich materials and elaborately ornamented pieces and also a fascination in the natural world. Pattern books emerged which had a great influence on design. An Italian, Federico Vinciolo published a pattern book, which due to popularity had to be constantly reprinted. European printers were all influenced by each other. In England illustrations in herbals were initially the source for inspiration, which later in the 17th century were supplied as patterns by the print sellers and merchants marked satin panels with the designs which could be purchased, worked by the embroiderer in the techniques and colours she desired, and then could be brought back to the merchant to be made up into the caskets which could be individualised to the requirements of the client with regard to the contents of the casket.
An extremely influential English book and print seller, was John Stent (born c.1615-1617) who had by 1662 accumulated the most extensive and diverse stock of engravings of any of his English competitors or predecessors, publishing at least 218 different plates of natural history subjects which were used by artists, teachers and embroiderers and were available at different prices, as broadsheets or as books including a three part work, A Book of Flowers Beasts, Birds and Fruits, in three parts, 20 leaves in each l’art. See Alexander Globe, Peter Stent London Bookseller Circa 1642-1665. Stent’s inventory included that of earlier engravers and printers, including Thomas Johnson’s work of 1530, and most importantly he was indebted to the four-part natural history work engraved by the German Jacob Hoefnagel, and designs by his father, printed in 1592, Stent also commissioned and used new designs by Wenceslaus Hollar, John Dunstall and John Payne and Johann Sibmacher all producers of pattern books. See Cora Ginsburg, A Book of Flowers, Fruits, Beasts, Birds and Flies, 17th century patterns for embroiderers, Curious Works Press, USA, 1995, for reproductions from Stenton's Third Booke of Flowers, Fruits, Beastes, Birds and Flies, drawn with additions by John Dunstall, 1661. Michael Snodin and John Styles, Design and the Decorative Arts, Tudor and Stuart Britain 1500-1714, Victoria and Albert Museum Publications, London, 2004, pg.138.pl.24, illustrates a page from Richard Shorleyker, A Scholehouse for the Needle, 1632, showing running bands of patterns for embroidery which were characteristic motifs of English embroidery. It is rare for the name of the embroiderer to be known, and the earlies dated and attributed cabinet by Hannah Smith, 1556, is in the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester. An embroidered casket in the Victoria & Albert Museum Collection, is recorded to have been embroidered by Martha Edlin (aged 11), in 1671, illustrated, op.cit. Snodin & Styles, pl.22 and was worked with panels including the lion and unicorn, and hart and a rarer motif of an elephant and shows the stylised floral motifs, such as those used on the sides and reverse of the presently offered casket. Another public collection example has the initials I (which is old English for J) P. and R.S are on a back panel with entwined hearts, and a secret compartment contained a paper slip identifying the maker as Rebecca Stonier Plaisted (who later married John Plaisted), is dated to 1668 in small seed pearls on the front, illustrated in Christa, Thurman, Textiles in the Art Institute of Chicago, New York, 1982, pp.72-73. Both these examples which are larger tiered cabinets include raised and detached work and are highly skilled technical achievements.
For a recently offered larger comparable embroidered casket, designed as a compartmentalised workbox, with figural tops, inclusion of the distinctive lion and similar band of stylised flowers, and with a top lifting to reveal a mirrored internal lid and including containers with writing accoutrements including sand and ink containers, see Sotheby’s, London, 5th June 2007, lot 102. For a comparable panel depicting a pastoral scene with woman and seed pearl necklace, possibly personifying Summer, with the architectural, bird and animal motifs, third quarter 17th century, see Donald King & Santina Levey, The Victoria & Albert Museum Textile Collection, Embroidery in Britain from 1200 to 1750, V&A Publications, London, 1993, pp.26-27, pp.70-71, fig.69 (Ref.T.186-1960), and floral details figs.71&72.
Lanto Synge, Art of Embroidery, History of Style and Technique, The Royal School of Needlework, London, 2001, Chapter Five, The Seventeenth Century, pp.110-159, Embroidered Pictures and Stumpwork, pp.131-143, discusses the technique, manufacture and subject matter of these panels, illustrating examples of which were used on mirrors or made up into the caskets.