Cf: Cartier 1900-1939, Judy Rudoe, British Museum Press, 1997, plate 54, page 115, for an example of a carved jade Pekingese made for Cartier New York, c 1925, housed within one of Cartier's distinctive glass cases with decorative mounts.
Cf: Fabergé in The Royal Collection, Caroline de Guitaut, Royal Collection Enterprises Ltd, 2003, plate 70, page 79, for an example of a carved fluorspar Pekingese attributed to Alfred Pocock, for Fabergé, Alfred Pocock was an independent modeller who produced animal carvings for Fabergé London shop.
Cf: Sotheby's, Important Silver and Gold Boxes, London June 1st 2006, lot 8 for a carved rose quartz Pekingese by Cartier from The Estate of Countess Moira Rossi de Montelera, which is identical to the fluorspar example attributed to Alfred pocock for Fabergé, in the Royal Collection.
Cf: Drouot Richelieu, Paris, November 4th 1998, lot 94 for a carved agate group of three Pekingese(damaged to feet), attributed to Fabergé, identical to the above lot.
During two separate visits to Russia in 1904 and 1905, Pierre Cartier explored the workshops of the leading St Petersburgian and Moscovite Lapidaries, for the purpose of sourcing the very best that the Russian craftsmen of the day were producing. Fine enamels and hard stone carvings were a particular Russian speciality, and were purchased by Cartier to fulfil the belle Epoque fascination with the new Russian style with its deferential nods to the 18th Century.
Russian lapidaries Svietchnikov (from Moscow) and Karl Woerffel (from St Petersburg and a major supplier to Fabergé), both began supplying hard stone carvings for Cartier, working to their own design as well as those commissioned by Cartier. Beyond commissioning of Russian craftsmen, in 1910, Cartier made direct purchases of two animals direct from Fabergé, a pink jade pig and a cornelian fox. Simultaneously French craftsmen began familiarizing themselves with the Russian style, and soon the workshops of Varangoz, Fréville and Césard began supplying Cartier with items in this style.
Whilst many of the animal hard stone carvings that are today attributed to Fabergé were almost certainly produced in the Russian or French workshops that also supplied Cartier, the commonality of style and absence of any signature makes it impossible in the majority of cases to ascertain the identity of the original seller in the absence of cases or historical provenance. The problem in attempting to distinguish between the two firms is further compounded by the extensive research and documentation of Fabergé objects held in collections and the lack of equivalent recorded information for Cartier items.
In 1907, Fabergé was commissioned to produce models of the animals at Sandringham as a present for King Edward VII. At this juncture Louis Cartier became concerned that the market was becoming saturated with animal carvings, due in part to the British enthusiasm for immortalizing their favourite pets in this decorative manner - King Edward's beloved Norfolk terrier Caesar and Queen Alexandra's Pekingese having already been immortalised in hard stone.
In 1917 Fabergé London shop closed and their clientele transferred their custom to Cartier, which continued to produce hard stone carving well in the 1920s adding new models to their repertoire, while there are similarities Cartier also employed some distinctive differences notably the use of rose quartz and the use of glass presentation cases with decorative mounts to house some of their carvings.
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